4 Fitch parsimony

Parsimony search was conducted in TNT v1.5 (Goloboff and Catalano 2016) using sectorial and ratchet heuristics (Goloboff 1999; Nixon 1999) under equal and implied weights (Goloboff 1997). We acknowledge the Willi Hennig Society for their sponsorship of the TNT software.

4.1 Implied weights

The consensus of all implied weights runs is not very well resolved:

This lack of resolution is largely a product of a few wildcard taxa, which obscure relationships that are nevertheless present in all most parsimonious trees:

4.1.1 Paterinids included

TNT implied weights consensus

Figure 4.1: TNT implied weights consensus

4.1.2 Paterinids excluded

TNT implied weights consensus

Figure 4.2: TNT implied weights consensus

4.2 Equal weights

TNT Equal weights consensus

Figure 4.3: TNT Equal weights consensus


Goloboff, P. A., and S. A. Catalano. 2016: TNT version 1.5, including a full implementation of phylogenetic morphometrics. Cladistics 32:221–238.

Goloboff, P. 1999: Analyzing large data sets in reasonable times: solutions for composite optima. Cladistics 15:415–428.

Nixon, K. C. 1999: The Parsimony Ratchet, a new method for rapid parsimony analysis. Cladistics 15:407–414.

Goloboff, P. A. 1997: Self-weighted optimization: tree searches and character state reconstructions under implied transformation costs. Cladistics 13:225–245.