This section identifies the different needs of the community and proposes suggestions on how standards and technologies could be developed to meet these needs. This section is designed for standards’ groups and policy makers. Each section addresses a different group of related user needs. Related user needs have been grouped together to help define a coherent solution space. It identifies user needs that are not currently fully addressed by accessibility.

Tables of user needs: each table addresses a group of user needs. The tables show how related user needs can be met.

Users needs are also represented by a few related user stories in the form of "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire> so that <benefit>".

The task force intend to update this section with:

We would like suggestions that could be used to make this section more understandable.

There is also an issue summary.

Please note this table is incomplete, and is a work in progress.)

Table 1: Authentication and Safety

About users: Many users (most COGA groups) have memory issues that can make transcribing text or remembering passwords difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function.

Sometimes security and authentication put a barrier between users and the tasks they are doing. For example, requiring remembering and/or transcribing passwords often bar users with cognitive disabilities from accessing content or using a service.

This leads to the following user stories.

  1. As a user who has memory impairments and often forgets passwords, I need to be able to use a site, without remembering or transcribing passwords and user names, so I can use its service.
  2. As a user who has impairments, I need to use a site without being required to transcribe items in the correct sequence.
  3. As a user who has weak executive function, I need the login process to be simple, and not multi-step, so I can use it.
  4. As a symbol user, I need a login process I can use.
User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques*

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need a method of secure website authentication that I find easy to use.

(Assume I have cognitive and memory impairments.) 

more 

Accessible authentication

Level A

--------

does this support symbol users?

Minimize the cognitive skills required to use the content - the examples in security.

Techniques should include how to have security that uses passwords or transcribing, such as biometrics and tokens.

None

we need to capture types of security these users can employ and, maybe, if they require the use of an API such as password storage.

Hardware and operating systems could provide authentication to websites and applications.

needs further investigation and risk analysis.

Encourage a standardized third party sign in, which is exclusively for authentication, and helps users login anywhere. 

 

I need a safe way to interact online. 

(Assume I do not have the cognitive function to identify all risks.)

more  

As above

and

Safe

Use known techniques to keep user information safe, and warn users of any known risk.

and

Do not automatically choose options that may disadvantage users without their approval, or add mechanisms likely to confuse users in a way that may do them harm.

Level A

Keep users safe.

Add: notify users when they are leaving a website if leaving it may cause them harm.

Give positive and negative examples.

We need to ensure users are not put at risk due to personalization and storing data. Proposals include use of functional requirements and employing personalization on users' devices. Tools for users to warn them when a post or an activity may expose them, or is considered inappropriate.

Discussion

Privacy and Security issue paper

Online Safety issue paper

Script for Personalization and example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

Table 2: Context and Distractions

About users: distractions can cause users with cognitive disabilities to lose focus on the current action being performed; or draw attention away from primary content; and can be difficult for some users to know how to understand, avoid, and/or stop them.

Once users become distracted, it can be difficult for them to remember what they were doing. This is especially problematic for users with both low attention and impaired memory, such as users with dementia.

This leads to the following user stories.

The task force intends to add user stories.

User needs

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need to consume content or complete a task without unnecessary distractions.

(Assume I have an attention related disability.)

 more 

Change 2.2.4 Interruptions:

Level A

--------

this was accepted into WCAG 2.1 at level AAA.

Attention and Focus

Proposed attribute: aui-distraction

Proposed attribute: aui-reminder

Enable users to turn off less-helpful reminders.

we need the formal user setting to enable different responses to semantics.

I need to know the context, where I am, and what I just did, or what just happened to me.

(Assume I have an attention disability and/or an impaired short-term memory.)

as above

and

Clear purpose

(Requires signposts for sub tasks.)

Clear structure and relationships:

Also see:

Help

Manageable blocks

As above, and WCAG techniques to include the following.

Headings and titles are provided that provide context.

In a multi step process, both the process and the step are identified.

Items such as breadcrumbs can help orient users, and help users restore context when it is lost.

(Making breadcrumbs clickable can also help users undo mistakes.)

Any choices made by users in a process are easy to review in one clearly-labeled action.

Users can get back to the place they were at in one clearly labeled action.

For an uncomplicated task, the website is identified (broader scope).

Proposed attribute:

aui-LOG

Should we enable a programmable way of identifying what are normal hidden variables of:

  • labels for steps in the process;
  • current step;
  • key selections; and
  • URL to repair?
Enable users to identify what orientation tools they prefer for presentation of steps in a process, such as breadcrumbs. For example, identity an adaptable widget to interpret the crumbs. Adaptable widgets for context

I need to restore context when I forget where I am or get distracted.

(Assume I have an impaired short-term memory.)

As above.

(See: A clear navigational path is provided for all content that: )

As above

Help users orient themselves and regain focus when it is lost.

I need to restore context in multimedia. I need to go back to that bit I just missed, or reorient myself if I lost context.

(Assume I have an attention disability and/or an impaired short-term memory.)

As above. Help users orient themselves and regain focus when it is lost.

For multimedia,  provide  labels for sections such that the labels can provide an outline of the content.
For multimedia, users can directly navigate to each section of the content.
Unique
Media over five minutes long are divided into programmatically determinable and logical sections. Each section must be shorter than five minutes.
For multimedia,  chunks may include: steps in a process, slide changes, topic changes.

..

I need reminders of important information.

(Assume I have an attention disability and/or an impaired short-term memory.)

Reminders

Enable users to set a reminder for date-and-time sensitive events. Reminders should be set only at users' request. Users should be able to personalize the reminder method.

As above. And, if there is a calendar / mail program, it could provide a feature to notify users of an impending meeting or of tasks (broader scope).

Proposed attributes:

aui-messageimportance

messagefrom

messagecontext

messagetime

Enable users to turn off less-helpful reminders.

User settings for how reminders are handled, including preferred modalities of different levels. Examples are: email, SMS, call, pop up.

Personalizing a reminder could include setting a type (e.g., personal, work, family).

or

by user-defined groups of users and sites (most important to least important).

or

by types users can define of reminders (e.g., office, important) and how they are handled

Note there are also location-sensitive events (for example "remind me to do x when I get home".)

I need to turn off distractions 1) to be a default, and 2) to be a trivial option in real time.

(Assume I have an attention disability, and/or an impaired short-term memory, and/or impaired executive function).

As above

and

Change 2.2.4 Interruptions:

and

Upgrade 3.2.5 Change on Request:

Support personalization.

Enable users to determine levels of interruptions as easily as possible.

As above.

User settings for distractions need to be interoperable.

Users should be able to handle:

  • groups of interruptions based upon user, urgency, location, and other semantics;
  • secondary content, such as special offers or complementary material, which can be easily identified, controlled, and turned off;
  • sudden changes that occur on the site;
  • media events that can be easily controlled and turned off;
  • chat that can be easily turned off and on again; and
  • non-critical messages that can easily be turned off and on again.

Operating System Tool

See Integrated solution.

It is based on a matrix for distractions at the operating system, browser, or cloud level. Users can turn off distractions, such as Skype and Facebook, across different devices, and then may forget to turn them back on. This idea manages all distractions by forming a cross-application and cross-device distraction matrix that manages all distractions in one setting.

Discussion

Distractions issue paper

Script for personalization and Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

Table 3: Entering Data, Error Prevention, & Recovery

About users: Completing forms and similar tasks can be overwhelming for most users with cognitive and learning disabilities. This includes relatively minor learning disabilities, such as Dyslexia, or attention related disabilities. Many users (most COGA groups) have memory issues that can make transcribing text difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function.

Many users with learning disabilities cannot remember numbers, such as those for their post/zip code, Social Security, or credit card. Many users even need to check their phone numbers. This makes entering information slow, and they may need to leave their desks or take breaks.

Many users find it very difficult to transcribe information due to low visual memory or impaired executive function.

This leads to the following user stories.

User Needs

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need help avoiding mistakes and minimizing the mistakes I might make.

 more 

3.3.3 Minimize user errors 

part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AA by 1.3.4 on autofill.

change to 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions.

add and identify changes.

Undo

change to 3.3.4 Error Prevention.

Safe

and

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provided content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Simple search forms are excluded (context-sensitive help as technique).

Clear controls​

--------

Where there is no way to make visual controls clear, ensure instructions are provided (technique COGA explain).

Ensure these criteria work in any modality, including voice, and in emerging technologies such as bots, so that techniques are evolvable.

A - provide beginner help, or easy access to human help, on forms and interactive controls for critical services.

AA - provide beginner help, and easy access to human help, on forms and interactive controls for critical services.

Prevent Errors

..

Provide Help

..

COGA Techniques 2.7: aui-explain to explain any nonstandard UI where they cannot be.

Explain and feedback

Adding Context

Standardize supportive syntax and terms that can be linked, for users, to associated symbols, terms, translations, and explanations.

Log

This proposal is to track tasks users have done so they can be reminded of them; and return to or fix a task.

Help

Some users may need additional information, or specifically additional-help information. We request additonal attributes so an author can indicate existence of additional information.

Proposed attribute: aui-moreinfo

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-extrahelp

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-helptype

Settings for how help is handled

aui-Log

Keep login (binary)

Show log

access key

help panel

icon

Breadcrumbs Options:

show name

show action

show clickable

use script (URI)

location

Help panel

Options:

When I click an icon/text
Never
Always open

location

Help panel content

tooltips / human help / more help / topics earch

/automated / FAQs / help form / simplified / glossary/

dictionary / thesaurus

explain / feedback

tooltips

on / off

chat support

When I click an icon / text
never / always
open location.

Settings for how explain and feedback are handled:

modality

text

text and speech

none

positions

vertical (bottom / top in-line)

(left, right, center?)

Adaptable widgets, which read help information, and create a help panel or other adaptable widget for different users.

Login across application

I need to know what mistake I made and how to correct a mistake. It does not cause undue alarm when I make a mistake and can correct it easily. Provide Feedback

Undo

A simple mechanism is provided to enable users to undo mistakes. Users can repair information via clearly-labeled actions. Users can get back to the place they were at in one clearly-labeled action with unwanted loss of data.

also covered in WCAG in 3.3.1.

making error-message text understandable is covered in WCAG in Understandable language.

Instructions, labels, navigation ..

also see WCAG 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) (financial legal and user data) and 3.3.6 (All).

change to 3.3.4 Error Prevention.

WCAG 3.3.4 to include important information (such as health).

add/check?

Error messaging should be clear, concise, and reassuring.

Make it easy to undo mistakes.

Explain and Feedback

change feedback to a role.

aui-moreinfo

This supports a URI where more help is provided (often with an aui-extrahelp support).

aui-extrahelp

This is really an element with a help role.

The attribute defines which type of help it is: tooltips / human help / more help.

/glossary / dictionary / thesaurus

add the use case of an error message with aui-moreinfo, and aui-extrahelp to the semantics document.

See Settings for how Explain and feedback above.

Should aui-moreinfo links be shown:

  • never;
  • text;
  • icon;
  • icon and text?

aui-helptype - for each type

tooltips / human help/ more help

/ glossary / dictionary / thesaurus, etc.:

  • show never;
  • help panel (default closed);
  • help panel (default open);
  • inline;
  • under link text;
  • under icon;
  • under both icon and linked text.

Help panel should have its own settings.

I need enough time, and not lose my work. Changes to timed events.

Help users complete and check their work.

Enough Time

Avoid Loss of data.

Users can set that the data are / are not stored.

Users can set a time minimum for controlling how long they see timeout messages.

issue paper may be needed to explore how to enable automatic acceptance of cookies, and stored data, to avoid data loss for certified or safe sites; and for limited usage or time.

I want to use applications or APIs that help me, such as remembering my information so I do not need to enter it again, and to help me (such as spelling).

Help

Support APIs (may change)

..

Avoid form autocomplete="off"

Correctly use tags, such as list items, so that text to speech, with synchronized text highlighting, works correctly.

Where helpful, identify in metadata what features and APIs are supported in the content.

Metadata that identify API and feature support that match with personalization settings.

Enable users to specify API support ([[GPII]] and [[ETSI]]) for the browser and the user agent.

Portal that matches support of an application and content; and users' needed support of features and APIs.

I want to know where I am in a process, including what I have done and what my next step is.

Clear Purpose

(Text: The main purpose of each page and section of content is clear. Extraneous information, not directly relevant to the main purpose of a page, is distinctly separated and programmatically determinable. For multi-step tasks, signposts should be provided to clarify the broader context, including steps completed, current step, and pending steps.)

See also:

Clear structure and relationships

Help:

Help users orient themselves, and regain focus when it is lost.

..

LOG

add how to identify steps in a process, and current position, so users can have breadcrumbs or other mechanisms of their choice.

There should not be more than one login per page.

Enable users to specify the mechanism that they understand.

Users specify which information in the login they want shown.

Users can specify a widget that shows the login.

Users can specify where the login should be:

  • top;
  • top of main;
  • bottom of main;
  • bottom page;
  • left / right /center.
a cross browser, cross application login, or breadcrumb.
I want to be able to check my work and go back without losing the work I have just done.

change to 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)

Undo

See also:

Help

Change to timed events.

The timeframe for reversing transactions is machine readable.

Make it easy to undo mistakes.

Log

Enable users to identify orientation tools they prefer for the presentation of steps in a process, such as breadcrumbs. For example, identity an adaptable widget to interpret the breadcrumbs.

add at phase 2?

People with bipolar illness and others can be supported for easy retracting of orders within a set timeframe; and

metadata to support the site identifying which timeframe transactions can be undone;

metadata to support site identification of context, or support transactions, such as groceries and travel;

transaction categories, such as noncritical transactions, non-financial (signing up for a news letter, etc.);

user preferences, which are hard to reset, and that set the preferred timeframe;

user preferences that block websites which do not conform to the timeframe for different types of transactions (glossary or technology - different context);

user preferences that inform a caregiver of a transaction above a specified amount in a given category (such as groceries, travel);

Adaptable widgets for context

Discussion

Script for Personalization and Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

Table 4: Help and support

About Users

To be completed.

This leads to the following user stories.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need more explanations, such as context sensitive help and short tips.

 more 

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provide content and information that help users understand. complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Simple search forms are excluded.

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. Labels and instructions: 

  • fully describe an input's function;
  • use the default format and standards for localized content, in the   location of users, and enable for changes of format for labels and user input. (An exception is provided where any standard format is accepted.);
  • explain where to get required information. (An exception is provided where the information is known by the intended audience, such as users' names.)

Level A

COGA Techniques 2.7: Prevent Errors.

..

Provide Help.

..

COGA Techniques 2.7

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have short explanations available where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies in which it should be used.

For forms and nonstandard controls:

  1. Where a standard mechanism for the platform or technologies exists for context sensitive help, it should be used. (Simple search forms are excluded.)
  2. Instructions should be available for nonstandard controls.

..

..

Adding context (that adds help)

..

check that the way sufficient techniques are done really meet the use cases.

Adding Context

Standardize supportive syntax and terms that can be linked to associated symbols, terms, translations, and explanations for users.

More Help

See help personalization in table above.

I know how to get more information.

 more 

Support Personalization.

part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

..

Critical features and important information are above the fold on users' devices, and are accentuated in the preferred modality of a user, or they appear before other main content. 

 Navigation uses clear words and a familiar interface.

Help and support page or function should be reachable with one user interaction. When human help is available, contact information or the correct mechanism should be reachable within two user interactions.

..

Support is provided that helps users understand the content, which includes:

Level A

--------

a familiar interface to identify help and contact us;

search and critical information have a familiar interface.

---

add at AAA. Provide links to more information.

..

Explain and Feedback

Adding Context

For users, standardize supportive syntax and terms that can be linked to associated symbols, terms, translations, and explanations

More Help

..

Requirement: Some users may need additional information, or specifically additional help information. There should be extra attributes so an author can indicate the existence of additional information.

Proposed attribute: aui-moreinfo

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-extrahelp

Supported values: URI

Proposed attribute: aui-helptype

Supported values: tooltips / human help / more help / topic search / automated / faqs / help form / simplified / glossary / dictionary / thesaurus

 

Example:

<button type="button" aui-extrahelp="uri2 uri3" >undo</button>

URI 2 may read:

<div id="uri2" aui-helptype="morehelp" 
aria-hidden="true">  
Pressing the undo button will erase
all your work on a page. 
Use this button with care.
If you press it by mistake, press control and z at the same time.
Your work will then come back.
</div> <a href="functiongethelp()" aui-helptype="humanhelp" aui-hidden="true"> I want a person to help me</a> <div id="uri3" aui-extrahelp="glossary" aui-hidden="true">

..

See help personalization in the table above, and personalization settings for the context (includes help types).

I need to easily get human help.

As above.

Finding Help. A help and support page or function should be reachable with one user interaction. When human help is available, contact information or the correct mechanism should be reachable within two user interactions.

Barriers: When there is a barrier, between content and users, which requires additional abilities, an alternative is provided that does not require additional abilities. (wording will change)

This affects reaching human help.

AAA human help is provided

Provide Human Help

..

More Help

(see above)

I need symbols that help me understand content.

Provide content and information that help users understand content.

Use symbols and images to show meaning.

add technique to enable interoperable symbol mapping for products for nonverbal users. Part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

In the Web Content: Syntax: ARIA-concept = "URI". Example (Pseudo-code): <img ARIA-concept=http://wordnet.org/somepage#girlnode" scr="girlwithbow.gif" />

  • Add technique at a user-agent symbol file end:

    <mysymbol scr="girlwithskirt.gif" ARIA-concept="http://wordnet.or g/somepage#girlnode" lang="en" /> Note that this is not about standardizing symbols, but is instead a way of mapping them.

..

Adding Context

I need contextually-relevant graphs and pictures to supplement text so I can understand a point without a lot of reading.

3.3.5 Help: (AA) (changes)

Provide content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

sufficient techniques

..

(See COGA Techniques 2.7.)

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have a short explanation available. Where a standard mechanism exists for a platform or technologies, it should be used. (COGA Techniques 2.7.)

    removed to technique: Short tooltips on all icons and jargon, which clarify the meaning, are provided.

For content relating to numbers and complex information:

  • Charts or graphics are provided where they aid comprehension of complex information (COGA Techniques 2.7.3.)

..

Help meaning

Use symbols and images to show meaning.

Adding Context

I need speech support, with synchronized highlighting, so I can follow as I go. Support known standardized APIs for tools that help users understand and use content. This includes: Provide Speech Support

do we need semantics that identify phrases?

Use ARIA described to correlate pictures and focus rings (sections of pictures); and sections of math with text; or

do we need a new semantic?

Automatic speech setting for:

  • all text;
  • title and instructions;
  • title and main content;
  • title and main content and complementary content;

user driven speech in touch, click, double click, etc.;

speech with synchronized highlighting;

highlight color on / off;

I need rapid feedback.

Provide Feedback.

..

..

aui-feedback

Feedback is spoken: on / off

Highlight section of image, chart, or math, while the section is read.

All relationships - use ARIA-details.

Note 1.3.1 Info and Relationships: information, structure, and Relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined, or are available in text.

This is not inclusive as it is not visually presented.

Relationships need to be programmatically determined.

I need more space between letters, words, sentences, and/or lines of text.

I need even word spacing or x justification.

check if we have justified text. Has justification been included?

space between sentences

normal, high, very high

space between words

(as above)

Space between phrases / clauses (as above)

setting for

even word spacing

auto / always

justification

auto / right / left / center

I need reminders, or I will forget appointments, and when I was meant to do things. Reminders: enable users to set a reminder for date and time sensitive events. Reminders should be set only at users' requests. Users should be able to personalize a reminder method. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used. if there is a calendar / mail program, it could provide a feature to notify users of an impending meeting or of tasks (broader scope).

setting to personalize a reminder method, such as:

email, pop up, SMS, phone call.

Set importance level of reminders for each modality/method.

I do not want too many reminders, as I will be distracted. Reminders: Reminders should be set only at users' requests. Users should be able to personalize the reminder method. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used. Attention and Focus

Proposed attribute: aui-reminder

Enable users to turn off less-helpful reminders.

See table 2.

See table 2.

See table 2.
I want to be confident that I can manage my tasks.

add and look at as issue.

Table 5: Simple and Clear Interface

About users: many users cannot easily learn new design metaphors, or remember things they learned, such as users with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Without these skills, it can be much harder or impossible to locate desired items to interact with, and to know what interactions may do.

Many users can be overwhelmed by too many options, or too much information. If reading is slow, then too much information mixed together will make it difficult or impossible to find the information needed.

This leads to the following user stories.

to be completed.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

Controls are clear.

 more 

clear controls

Level A

--------

to add

Use clear visual affordances.

Adding Context

Identify how to present different roles, elements, and context elements.

See table 6.

Show borders, white space, etc.

A predictable design is used within a set of pages that includes:

I need to understand the menu terms so I know where to find things. Understandable Language

Support personalization.

The author can use simple and well understood terms.

OR

Authors need to make sure content adapts to user personalization settings to meet this need.

Adding Context

add new text on known elements.

See table 6 row 1

I can find the controls that I need.

Familiar Layout

Critical features and important information.

Headings,

Changes to 3.2.4 - Consistent Identification:

Changes to 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation:

clear controls

See also

support personalization.

..

 

..

Adding Context

Position, text, and format on known elements are settable by users.

Hiding of less important content

See table 6, row 1.

I need a structure that is easy follow.

Manageable chunks

3.2.4 Consistent identification

Clear controls

Familiar layout

Clear structure and relationships

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation

2.1.1 Consistent styles

Critical features and important information

..

add a technique on how to mark up a site map so it is adaptable.

Log

add semantics for a sitemap page.

(heading structure)

log customizable breadcrumbs

format and navigation for the site map

I can easily find content I need.

As above and

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provide search

as above as above
I need signposts so I can find information I need. Clear Purpose

See also

Critical features

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Sufficient techniques for long documents include keywords.

change to  2.4.10  to AA, with the addition that headings are available, and a technique that headings are shown via personalization.

use of headings

adding part of the page to landmarks roles

Potential parts of a page
  • key points;
  • examples;
  • notes;
  • warnings; and
  • steps.

Settings needed for headings should always be shown.

how should parts of a page, landmarks, ePub, and COGA roles be handled?

options;

call out box (CSS reference);

symbol;

generate Nav lists;

other.

keyword format: CSS options

keyword navlist options: on / off

Multimedia - understandable structure. I find it easy to find the content needed.

Manageable blocks of information

Support personalization.(or the links can become a distraction).

Clear headings include multimedia.

add TOC in the summary with a TOC tag.

Use of SMIL.

TOC as an ARIA type

User settings for how a TOC or nav list should be presented:

in the description of a video;

under an icon;

under text label;

icon and text;

position of icon, TOC, etc.

I can easily separate what I need, and do not need, and find what I need.

Support Personalization.

Critical features and important information

Clear and understandable layout

3.3.3 Minimize user errors 

Consistent cues are provided that identify  different content types; and the status of elements and regions that help users understand their roles or states.

..

make technique for the following.

  1. Non-native content and sponsored content are clearly marked, and are visually differentiated by standardized techniques.
  2. Clearly differentiate between facts and less-substantiated opinions.

    was rewritten from "Clearly differentiate between opinions and facts. "

Simplification

Adding Context

Potential parts of a page

add opinion

I know what an advertisement is, or one from a different website. consistent cues

sufficient technique for third party content

support personalization

part of this could be adressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

Non-native content and sponsored content are clearly marked, and are visually differentiated by standardized techniques.

Proposed attribute: aui-distraction

Potential parts of a page

Examples:

  • external - for external content, such as sponsored or advertising (Not sign in - that is external.);
  • offers - for special offers complementary to the main content or task;
  • advertisement - advertisement or sponsored content;

how to format different elements

See row 1, table 6.

I know where to find things on a page.

Familiar layout:

and

Changes to 3.2.2 - 3.2.4

techniques to include - making common components and icons programmatically determinable enables their positions to be standardized via personalization.

techniques to include: example of COGA-WCAG technique.

In 2015, in websites with English text, a standard layout includes:
  • a search box in the upper0right corner;
  • a link to the home page in the upper-left corner;
  • a site map in the footer; and
  • main menus at the tops of pages, under login and search, or on the left side.

Adding Context

Setting for positioning of elements (see above).

Enabling users to set a familiar layout, such as Android, Windows, iOS, and which version (or this should set individual settings as a template).

I know the design patterns.

clear controls

..

Familiar layout

..

Support personalization

(See COGA Techniques 2.3)
  1. Interactive controls are visible.
  2. Interactive controls, including links, are visually discriminable, and their boundaries are visually clear.
    1. Boundaries on interactive controls, and boundaries of icons, should have a sufficient color contrast of 1.5.
  3. Interactive controls, with the same role, are consistently presented across a set of web pages.
  4. The qualities or properties of a control define its possible uses. It is clear how it can or should be used, and what action it will trigger.
  5. Actions and actionable items, which can be interacted with, should have a clear visual style that indicates how to interact with them (e.g., buttons that look like buttons). Visually clear controls can be made easily available though easy-to-use personalization (when available).
Adding Context

Setting how roles and elements should be presented.

Button view, CSS associated classes for each role or element type with pseudo states

Unambiguous affordances - I know what things are and what they do.

clear controls

Familiar layout

Understandable language (instructions, labels, navigation, and important information )

..

Support personalization

..

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

(Provided content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls.)

..

aui-explain for more details on users interface Language type support

..

aui-explain for more details on users' interfaces

as above

user settings - how should aui-explain be shown?

aui-explain -

  • show never;
  • inline;
  • in-help panel (default closed);
  • in-help panel (default open);
  • inline;
  • under link text (with positions);
  • under icon (with positions);
  • under both icon and linked text (with positions).

Table 6: Familiar interface

About users: many users cannot easily learn new design metaphors, or remember things they learned, such as users with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Without these skills, it can be much harder or impossible to locate desired items to interact with, and to know what interactions may do. Users can feel lost or overwhelmed.

Using a familiar design, terms and symbols are key to being able to use the web for users who cannot remember new symbols (such as some users with memory related impairments like dementia). Therefore, users need things to be familiar including:

However, what is familiar for one user may be new for another. So, the interface needs to be familiar to the individual user.

This leads to the following user stories:

to be completed.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I am familiar with the UI, and I know how to work it and what will happen when I work it.

 more 

Support personalization.

Level A

part of this could be addressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

--------

Familiar layout:

Adding Context

In adding a semantic for the context (what the thing is for), such as:

aui-action="undo"

or

aui-destination="home"

and additional landmarks or regions, such as

role="warning"

part of this could be addressed in WCAG 2.1 at level AAA by 1.3.5.

User settings will need to address how to handle different contexts, such as aui-action="undo", for example, and which symbol to load for the setting.

A mechanism is needed to read users' settings and adapt the page. Open source script is available being worked on at https://github.com/ayelet-seeman/coga.personalisation

User settings for each contextual element include:

text;

tooltip;

Longdesc (extra help);

symbol

shortcut

@ARIA-hidden

(and any other attribute)

to add : location)

also add for other COGA attributes.

"@aui-simplification": [{ "critical": { "settings": [{ "@ARIA-hidden": "false", "CSS": "visibility:visible;" }] }

designs that are familiar

A vocabulary of design elements, such as hamburger menus, pop-ups, help swipe right, setting swipe left, etc., is needed.

For each one, familiar options:

fluent;

familiar;

unknown symbol (URL)

text =""

locations

  • any;
  • top;
  • top of main;
  • bottom of main;
  • bottom page;
  • left / right / center.

Also, a user setting is needed: how to handle when personalization and context information are available.

Personalization options

auto;

auto with default button (URI);

none;

personalization option button (URI);

toolbar button (URI);

menu button (URI);

combo box with additional options {default, json1 uri, json2uri, etc}.

All these above may be set by users identifying a familiar operating system or some familiar pages.

A taxonomy of support end values is needed.

A taxonomy is needed for user preferences.

[[GPII]], [[ETSI]], and other standards will need to enable these preferences to be portable.

Step-by-step instructions may be needed for setting personalization settings.

Definitions of tested values for personalization, test pages so authors can run a small test suite, and tests for all settings in the test suite range.

Schemes for personalization need to include context and changes in abilities.

I need symbols I understand immediately. as the above Techniques for using correct semantics, and importing a script that adapts a web page. Adding Context

And adding context nodes.

See above.

The author will need to ensure content adapts to user personalization settings to meet this need.

For example, an open-source script could be included that would read user settings and import correct symbols.

See: http://rawgit.com/ayelet-seeman/COGA.personalisation/demo/conactUs.html

I need different types of messages to be consistent in different parts of the screen. as above as above

Use of location as above with any element role, or context, or type.

see help table 3

I need controls to be consistently positioned on the screen. as the above Adding Context

Use of location as above with any element role, or context, or type.

Discussions

clarify the following user needs and add them to the above table.

add the above user needs to the table, mapping user needs to solutions.

Table 7: Clear and understandable content and text.

About Users

to be completed.

This leads to the following user stories.

User needs for understandable text:

See also user needs for understandable content addressed in table 4:

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

Understandable use of vocabulary, syntax, and other aspects of language.

Clear language

 more 

Understandable language (on instructions, labels, navigation, and important information)

Level A and AA

also

Support personalization.

--------

To add

Provide clear language for all content.

Level AAA

2.3 Writing style

Use a clear writing style.

2.3.1 Be clear and to the point.

aui-alternative

aui-easylang

Alternative is to use of EMMA

we still need to standardize the terms, such as for complexity.

aui-literal

Emotional ML can also be used to identify emotions in content (also for multimedia).

do we need another way of adding emotions or sarcasm into content?

We need user settings for:

1. What type of COGA alternative text, e.g., easylang numberfree vocab1000.

2. Type of COGA alternative non-text.

This will match the terms in HTML (with extra semantics), or in EMMA so a user agent or website know which one to render.

User settings are needed for:

1. Who prefers literal text, and

2. Who wants less implicit information?

When there is a preferred alternative for navigation / text / labels, always specify each one separately.

  • Show it in brackets after the text.
  • Change the text format, and put the alternative in a tooltip (Specify Format).
  • Put both the original and alternative in a help panel.
  • Replace original text.

Authoring tools can be created to check if content is in need of alternatives.

A taxonomy is needed for user preferences.

[[GPII]], [[ETSI]], and other standards will need to enable these preferences to be portable.

Tools can build the literal-text values or Emotional ML languages.

User agents or cloud services can provide and display clarifying information.

Clarify implied information and provide unambiguous information.

 more 

Understandable language (on instructions, labels, navigation, and important information)

Clear language in instructions - use literal text:(AA)

and

Each step in instructions are identified and concrete wording is used.

------------

Support personalization.

add to AAA.

Clarify implied information and clarify the emotional content.

Use a clear Writing style.

2.3.1 Be clear and to the point.

..

2.3.2 Give instructions clearly

aui-literal

Emotional ML can also be used to identify emotions in content (also for multimedia).

do we need another way of adding the emotions or sarcasm into content?

[[EMMA]] can also be used in content.

User settings must be available to identify when a user prefers literal content without implicit content.

Reduction of dependence on understanding math concepts.

  • To use content without understanding math concepts.
  • Representation of math by words instead of numbers.

(representation of math by words instead of numbers)

 more 

3.3.5 Help

Provide content and information that help users understand. complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content,  reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

Simple search forms are excluded.

make sure there are sufficient techniques for complex information and numbers.

  • Charts or graphics are provided to aid comprehension of complex information (COGA Techniques 2.7.3 )
  • Tables are provided to aid comprehension of information.
  • Understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content. Reinforce numbers with non-numerical values, e.g., Very Cold, Cold, Cool, Mild, Warm, Hot, Very Hot.

------

Also see

Support personalization.
..

Ability to have mathematical notation with text to speech to aid understanding.

Use of synchronized highlighting of complex graphics and formula with speech.

Associate maths, sections of math, and sections of complex items, with explanations.

2.6.3.5 Relative values

this is not clear.

Use semantics to provide extra help.

Explain mathematical concepts with non-mathematical language. For example "change 90% agree", to "most users (90%) agree".

aui-numberfree

User settings must identify:

1. when a user prefers content with less numerical content and prefers words;

2. when a user prefers content without dependence on math concepts;

3. users who prefer mathematical content;

possible settings

format - CSS class =underline / bold

Show as=

tooltip/onclick/help panel/replace.

Can select more than one, do the first option if available, and, if not, do the next option.

For example "tooltip onclick" - do tooltip if available. If not, use onclick.

Support for slow readers

Manageable blocks of information:

Understandable language

clear structure and relationships.

When there is a barrier, between content and users, which requires additional cognitive function, an alternative is provided that does not require additional cognitive function.

Support personalization.

clear text and voice

Critical features and important information are above the fold on most users' devices, and are accentuated in the preferred modalities of users, or they appear before other main content. 

Clear headings

Enable APIs

Help: (AA)

Provide content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

ensure sufficient techniques, as in the next volume.

Use a clear writing style.

Use a clear structure.

2.5 Help meaning

ensure sufficient techniques.

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have short explanations available. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used (COGA Techniques 2.7.)

    removed to technique: Short tooltips on all icons and jargon that clarify the meaning are provided.

For content with more than 200 words, provide a summary.

  1. For pieces of content with fewer than 200 words, headings may act as summaries.
  2. The content owner identifies at least two keywords that aid comprehension for users. Keywords are programmatically determinable, and emphasized in the preferred modalities of users.

For key content and call out boxes:

  • Symbols are provided to help users identify key content including: types of contact information, main functions, warnings, and key points. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used.

For events:

  • Enable users to set a reminder for date and time sensitive events. Reminders should be set only at the users request. Users should be able to personalize the reminder method. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used

For forms and nonstandard controls

  1. Where a standard mechanism for the platform or technologies exist for context sensitive help, it should be used. (Simple search forms are excluded.)
  2. Instructions should be available for nonstandard controls.

And others...

As above

Also, having less content is helpful for slow readers,

aui-simplification= "simplest"

()

Enabling APIs is also important.

()

User settings should be enabled, saying:

what levels of symbols, graphics, and support users need. (See table 4.)

synchronized highlighting

simplification level

What APIs do users need?

User agents or cloud based software to adapt content, and to enable users to jump to keywords.

tools to add extra semantics

tools to identify when extra semantics are missing

I need to understand (familiar) symbols.

New technique for 1.3.1

under 1.3.1, add technique to enable interoperable symbol mapping for products for nonverbal users.

In the Web Content: Syntax: ARIA-concept = "URI". Example (Pseudo-code): <img ARIA-concept=http://wordnet.org/somepage#girlnode" scr="girlwithbow.gif" />

make sure this is proposed.

-----------

Support personalization.

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

with sufficient techniques .

For key content and callout boxes:

  • symbols are provided to help users identify key content, including: types of contact information, main functions, warnings, and key points. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used.
Adding Context

Ensure symbols can be are associated with types for call out boxes.

Identify preferred symbol sets for concept mapping.

I need to understand images and multi-media.

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

with sufficient techniques

For icons and jargon:

  • All icons and jargon have short explanations available. Where a standard mechanism exists for the platform or technologies, it should be used. (COGA Techniques 2.7.)

    removed to technique: Short tooltips on all icons and jargon that clarify the meaning are provided..

multimedia - See table 2 and 5 above.

To do: ensure multimedia headings have sufficient techniques.

add emotional clarity. Clarify implicit information in pictures and multimedia, such as sarcasm and mood - AAA.

as above

how to clarify information (mood and literal) in media?

as above

To do: add user settings to clarify information (mood and literal) in media.

Discussions

Emotional ML

EMMA examples

Script for personalization

and

Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

Table 8: Navigating the system

About users: Many users (most COGA groups) have memory issues and/or language issues that can make remembering numbers, while processing words, difficult or impossible. Other contributing issues include impaired executive function.

Sometimes developers put a barrier between users and the task they are doing so users cannot use the content or service.

This leads to the following user stories.

  1. As a user who has memory impairments and weak language processing skills, I want to get help, without going though a Voice-ML menu system, so I can set an appointment or find out some information.
  2. As a user who has weak executive function, I need a process to get help to be simple, and not multi-step, so I can use it.
  3. Users can have trouble identifying the right words to say in a voice menu.

To do: integrate the issue paper on Voice ML.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

I need to find information I need without deciphering a lot of words or symbols.

 more 

Accessible authentication

and voice over IP criteria on barriers

to be added

----------------------------

See also

Understandable language

Manageable blocks

Clear and understandable layout

A familiar design

Critical features

Support personalization

..
  Simplification

 

Adding Context

Settings for simplification and adding context as above.  

I need to quickly identify options I need.

As above.

and

Help

Support personalization

Where the number of steps in a process can be reduced, users can control the tradeoff between function and simplification.

to be completed.

Simplification

 Support for simplification as above,

to be completed.

to be completed.

I need simple-to-navigate menu systems.

Clear language:

See: In menus with sub menus:

  1. the text of each main menu item is easy to understand.

Clear structure and relationships:

  1. each sub-menu item is clearly associated with a main menu item under which it falls. (This can be due to being an industry or a platform default.)

)

Help

..

further work?

needs further investigation.

I need simple-to-navigate voice-menu systems.

more

1.4.4 When there is a barrier between content and users, which requires additional abilities, an alternative is provided that does not require additional abilities.

add best practices?

Human help

can we add a method to repeat a last option?

Minimize the cognitive skills required to use content when there is a known alternative.

Can semantics help? Operators and functions, such as main menu, undo, back, and repeat a last option, are standardized. Can standard functions be mapped, to be available for users, which enable specific shortcuts to be standardized (such as 0 for a human, x for back, etc.)

Integration with standards. (Which are relevant?)

Best practices in Voice ML need to consider cognitive disabilities.

also added to open issues: how difficulty with speech could affect voice systems.

I can find a human. Finding help: Help and support page or function should be reachable with one user interaction. When human help is available, the correct contact information or mechanism should be reachable within two user interactions.

Human help should be one click away. Example: use available standards to get human help, such as using the 0 digit on voice menu systems.

Standard terms for human help in voice systems.

Discussion

Voice ML Issue Paper

EMMA examples

Script for personalization and Example for personalization

Semantics

Proposal for WCAG

Techniques

Table 9: Navigation and GPS

About Users

to be completed.

This leads to the following user stories.

User needs for understandable navigation:

The task force intends to add more user needs.

User Needs *

WCAG

Proposed Success Criteria *

Authoring Techniques *

Proposed New Semantics *

Personalization* Operating System / Other *

root option for simplicity - let me balance complexity and speed.

 more 

Support personalization.

 

Where the number of steps in a process can be reduced, enable users to control the trade off between function and simplification.

to be completed.

add for GPS.

User settings must be available to identify preferences.

to be completed.

Understandable terms, which make sense to users, and do not depend on knowing left and right, or on number dependence. 

3.3.5 Help: (AA)

Provide content and information that help users understand complex information, long documents, numerical information, relative and cardinal directions, forms, and nonstandard controls. 

Where an understanding of math is not a primary requirement for using content, reinforce numbers with non-numerical values. 

add for GPS.

add for GPS.

No automatic rerouting without user consent. Change on Request: Changes of context, functionality, settings, and roots are initiated only by a user request. An easy-to-use mechanism is available to turn off such changes. Ask users if they want to be rerouted.

Enable auto rerouting: always / never / ask.

understandable symbols Familiar layout: Navigation mechanisms and common icons are easily identifiable and available to users in one or more of the following ways: (AA)

Adding context

add terms for GPS.

no change of context Interruptions and media events can be easily identified; and turned off and turned on again; except critical messages and interruptions involving an emergency. Use standard techniques when available. As tables above As tables above
No change to orientation.

add to 3.2.5 Change on Request