Enabling users of assistive technologies to find their way through Web content requires embedding semantic metadata about Web document structural divisions. This is particularly important for structural divisions of long-form documents and goes along with embedding semantic metadata about Web-application widgets and behaviors for assistive technologies. This specification defines a set of WAI-ARIA roles specific to helping users of assistive technologies navigate through such long-form documents.

This document is part of the WAI-ARIA suite described in the WAI-ARIA Overview.

The Candidate Recommendation exit criteria are listed in the appendix.

Introduction

WAI-ARIA is a technical specification that defines a common host language semantic accessibility API and framework that enables web browsers to map the accessibility semantics in web content to platform-specific accessibility APIs. This enables web content to be interoperable with platform assistive technologies similar to native platform applications without platform dependencies.

This specification is a modular extension of WAI-ARIA designed for the digital publishing industry. The goals of this specification include:

The roles defined in this specification are derived from the EPUB Structural Semantics Vocabulary.

For a more detailed explanation of WAI-ARIA please refer to the WAI-ARIA Introduction and how it applies to Rich Internet Application Accessibility.

Target Audience

This specification defines a module of WAI-ARIA for digital publishing, including roles, states, properties and values. It impacts several audiences:

Each conformance requirement indicates the audience to which it applies.

Although this specification is applicable to the above audiences, it is not specifically targeted to, nor is it intended to be the sole source of information for, any of these audiences. In the future, additional documents will be created to assist authors in applying these WAI-ARIA semantics for the publishing industry and to define how the information in this document is mapped to platform accessibility APIs.

User Agent Support

This module builds on the general User Agent support principles defined in [[WAI-ARIA]] by also providing the ability for user agents to enhance the general user interface presented to readers.

Co-Evolution of WAI-ARIA and Host Languages

The Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA module follows the model for co-evolution of WAI-ARIA and host languages defined in [[WAI-ARIA]]. It is intended to augment semantics in supporting languages like [[HTML5]], [[SVG2]] and EPUB, or to be used as an accessibility enhancement technology in other markup-based languages that do not explicitly include support for ARIA. It clarifies semantics to assistive technologies when authors create new types of objects, via style and script, that are not yet directly supported by the language of the page, because the invention of new types of objects is faster than standardized support for them appears in web languages.

It is not appropriate to create objects with style and script when the host language provides a semantic element for that type of objects. While WAI-ARIA can improve the accessibility of these objects, accessibility is best provided by allowing the user agent to handle the object natively. For example, it is not better to use a heading role on a div element than it is to use a native heading element, such as an h1.

It is expected that, over time, host languages will evolve to provide semantics for objects that currently can only be declared with this specification. This is natural and desirable, as one goal of WAI-ARIA is to help stimulate the emergence of more semantic and accessible markup. When native semantics for a given feature become available, it is appropriate for authors to use the native feature and stop using this module for that feature. Legacy content may continue to use the Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA module, however, so the need for user agents to support it remains.

While specific features of this module may lose importance over time, the general possibility of the Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA module to add semantics to web pages or open web based standards, such as EPUB, is expected to be a persistent need. Host languages may not implement all the semantics this module provides, and various host languages may implement different subsets of the features. New types of objects are continually being developed, and one goal of this specification is to provide a way to make such objects accessible, because authoring practices often advance faster than host language standards. In this way, this module and host languages both evolve together but at different rates.

Some host languages exist to create semantics for features other than the user interface. For example, SVG expresses the semantics behind production of graphical objects, not of user interface components that those objects may represent. Host languages such as these might, by design, not provide native semantics that map to this specification's features. In these cases, the Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA module could be adopted as a long-term approach to add semantic information to these host languages.

Authoring Practices

Authoring Tools

Many of the requirements in the definitions of the WAI-ARIA and Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA roles, states and properties can be checked automatically during the development process, similar to other quality control processes used for validating code. To assist authors who are creating digital publications, such as EPUB, can compare the semantic structure of Digital Publishing WAI-ARIA roles from the DOM to that defined in this specification and notify the author of errors or simply create templates that enforce that structure.

Testing Practices and Tools

The accessibility of interactive content cannot be confirmed by static checks alone. Developers of interactive content should test for device-independent access to widgets and applications, and should verify accessibility API access to all content and changes during user interaction.

Assistive Technologies

Programmatic access to accessibility semantics is essential for assistive technologies. For more information, refer to the Assistive Technologies section in [[WAI-ARIA]].

This specification indicates whether a section is normative or informative. Classifying a section as normative or informative applies to the entire section. A statement "This section is normative" or "This section is informative" applies to all sub-sections of that section.

Normative sections provide requirements that authors, user agents and assistive technologies MUST follow for an implementation to conform to this specification.

Informative sections provide information useful to understanding the specification. Such sections may contain examples of recommended practice, but it is not required to follow such recommendations in order to conform to this specification.

Important Terms

Digital Publishing Roles

This section defines additions to the WAI-ARIA role taxonomy and describes the characteristics and properties of all roles. See ARIA Roles for descriptions of the fields provided by this module.

Definition of Roles

Below is an alphabetical list of WAI-ARIA roles to be used by rich internet application authors.

Placeholder for compact list of roles

doc-abstract

A short summary of the principle ideas, concepts and conclusions of the work, or of a section or excerpt within it.

<section role="doc-abstract" aria-label="Abstract">
   <p>Accessibility of web content requires semantic information about widgets, structures,
      and behaviors …</p>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-acknowledgments

A section or statement that acknowledges significant contributions by persons, organizations, governments and other entities to the realization of the work.

<section role="doc-acknowledgments">
   <p>I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to … </p>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-afterword

A closing statement from the author or a person of importance, typically providing insight into how the content came to be written, its significance, or related events that have transpired since its timeline.

<section role="doc-afterword">
   <h1>Afterword: Why I Wrote This Book</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-appendix

A section of supplemental information located after the primary content that informs the content but is not central to it.

<section role="doc-appendix">
   <h1>Appendix A. Historical Timeline</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:
Base Concept:
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:
Supported States and Properties:
Inherited States and Properties:
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:
Implicit Value for Role:
doc-backlink

A link that allows the user to return to a related location in the content (e.g., from a footnote to its reference or from a glossary definition to where a term is used).

<aside id="fn01" role="doc-footnote">
   <a role="doc-backlink" href="#fnref01">1.</a>
   Additional results of this study and
   similar studies can be found at …
</aside>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: link
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From:
  • contents
  • author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-biblioentry

A single reference to an external source in a bibliography. A biblioentry typically provides more detailed information than its reference(s) in the content (e.g., full title, author(s), publisher, publication date, etc.).

Authors MUST ensure that elements with role doc-biblioentry are contained in, or owned, by an element with the role list.

<section role="doc-bibliography">
   <h1>Cited Works</h1>
   <div role="list">
      <p role="doc-biblioentry" id="b8cab5dd-bc24-459c-9858-7afa9da69b64">
         John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: The Viking Press, 1939)
      </p>
   </div>
   …
</section>
<section role="doc-bibliography">
   <h1>Select Bibliography</h1>
   <ul>
      <li role="doc-biblioentry" id="faulkner-dying">
         William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying (New York: Jonathan Cape & Harrison Smith, 1930)
      </li>
   </ul>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: listitem
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role: doc-bibliography
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-bibliography

A list of external references cited in the work, which may be to print or digital sources.

<section role="doc-bibliography">
   <h1>Select Bibliography</h1>
   <ul>
      …
   </ul>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements: doc-biblioentry
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-biblioref

A reference to a bibliography entry.

<p>
   As <a role="doc-biblioref"
      href="#b8cab5dd-bc24-459c-9858-7afa9da69b64">Steinbeck</a>
   says in his great novel …
</p>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: link
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From:
  • contents
  • author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-chapter

A major thematic section of content in a work.

<section role="doc-chapter">
   <h1>Chapter 1. Loomings.</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-colophon

A short section of production notes particular to the edition (e.g., describing the typeface used), often located at the end of a work.

<section role="doc-colophon" aria-label="About the type">
   <p>This publication was set using … </p>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-conclusion

A concluding section or statement that summarizes the work or wraps up the narrative.

<section role="doc-conclusion">
   <h1>Summary</h1>
   <p>A central task in feminist scholarship is to expose and dismantle the stereotypes … </p>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-cover

An image that sets the mood or tone for the work and typically includes the title and author.

<img role="doc-cover" src="coverimage.jpg" alt="A Room of One's Own by Virginia Woolf"/>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: img
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-credit

An acknowledgment of the source of integrated content from third-party sources, such as photos. Typically identifies the creator, copyright and any restrictions on reuse.

<p role="doc-credit">
   Page 62, Table 3.1 from <cite>“Economic Foundations of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis”</cite>
   by A. M. Garber and C. E. Phelps …
</p>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-credits

A collection of credits.

<section role="doc-credits">
   <h1>Photo Credits</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-dedication

An inscription at the front of the work, typically addressed in tribute to one or more persons close to the author.

<p role="doc-dedication">To my family, without whom this would have never been possible.</p>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-endnote

One of a collection of notes that occur at the end of a work, or a section within it, that provides additional context to a referenced passage of text.

Authors MUST ensure that elements with role doc-endnote are contained in, or owned, by an element with the role list.

<section role="doc-endnotes">
   <h2>Notes</h2>
   <ol>
      <li id="6baa07af" role="doc-endnote">Additional results of this study can be found at … </li>
      <li id="7b2c0555" role="doc-endnote">…</li>
      …
   </ol>
</section>
<section role="doc-endnotes">
   <h2>Notes</h2>
   <section id="ch1-notes">
      <h3>Chapter 1</h3>
      <div role="list">
         <p id="6baa07af" role="doc-endnote">1. Additional results of this study can be found at … </p>
         <div id="7b2c0555" role="doc-endnote">
            <p>2. The primary source of infomation …</p>
            <p class="note-cont">In the case of secondary studies …</p>
         </div>
         …
      </div>
   </section>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: listitem
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role: doc-endnotes
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required:  
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-endnotes

A collection of notes at the end of a work or a section within it.

Note that the doc-endnotes role is never applied directly to the list of endnotes. See the doc-endnote role for more information.

<section role="doc-endnotes">
   <h2>Notes</h2>
   <ol>
      <li id="6baa07af" role="doc-endnote">Additional results of this study can be found at … </li>
      <li id="7b2c0555" role="doc-endnote">…</li>
      …
   </ol>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements: doc-endnote
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-epigraph

A quotation set at the start of the work or a section that establishes the theme or sets the mood.

<blockquote role="doc-epigraph">
   <p>“Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here?”</p>
   <p>“That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the cat.</p>
</blockquote>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-epilogue

A concluding section of narrative that wraps up or comments on the actions and events of the work, typically from a future perspective.

<section role="doc-epilogue">
   <header>
      <h1>Epilogue</h1>
      <p>SPOKEN BY PROSPERO</p>
   </header>
   <p>Now my charms are all o'erthrown, …</p>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-errata

A set of corrections discovered after initial publication of the work, sometimes referred to as corrigenda.

<section role="doc-errata">
   <h1>Corrections</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-example

An illustratration of a key concept of the work, such as a code listing, case study or problem.

<aside role="doc-example">
   <h1>Hello World!</h1>
   …
</aside>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-footnote

Ancillary information, such as a citation or commentary, that provides additional context to a referenced passage of text.

The doc-footnote role is only for representing individual notes that occur within the body of a work. For collections of notes that occur at the end of a section, see doc-endnotes.

<aside id="6baa07af" role="doc-footnote">
   * Additional results of this study and similar studies can be found at …
</aside>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required:  
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-foreword

An introductory section that precedes the work, typically not written by the author of the work.

<section role="doc-foreword">
   <h1>Foreword</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-glossary

A brief dictionary of new, uncommon or specialized terms used in the content.

<dl role="doc-glossary">
   …
   <dt id="bcc0f155" role="term">Credit default swap</dt>
   <dd role="definition">
      A credit default swap effectively insures against
      default by a borrower.
   </dd>
   …
</dl>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements: term, definition
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-glossref

A reference to a glossary definition.

<p>
   This is indicated in the cost of a
   <a href="#bcc0f155" role="doc-glossref">credit default swap</a> …
</p>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: link
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From:
  • contents
  • author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-index

A navigational aid that provides a detailed list of links to key subjects, names and other important topics covered in the work.

<section role="doc-index">
   <h1>Index</h1>
   <section>
      <h2>A</h2>
      <ul>
         <li>A/B testing, <a href="chapter03.xhtml#page230">230</a></li>
         …
      </ul>
   </section>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: navigation
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-introduction

A preliminary section that typically introduces the scope or nature of the work.

<section role="doc-introduction">
   <p>Everyone has some experience with marketing … </p>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-noteref

A reference to a footnote or endnote, typically appearing as a superscripted number or symbol in the main body of text.

<p> … as studies have shown.<a id="fnref01" role="doc-noteref">[1]</a></p>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: link
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From:
  • contents
  • author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-notice

Notifies the user of consequences that might arise from an action or event. Examples include warnings, cautions and dangers.

<section role="doc-notice">
   <img src="warning.png" alt="warning icon"/>
   <p>Just because you can include a font doesn’t mean you should.
      Think carefully about readability. Also, be respectful of intellectual property.
      There are many excellent free open source fonts available.</p>
</section>

Authors SHOULD include a label when the notice needs to be navigable to.

<div role="doc-notice" aria-label="Explosion Risk">
   <p><em>Danger!</em> Mixing reactive materials may cause an explosion.</p>
</div>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: note
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-pagebreak

A separator denoting the position before which a break occurs between two contiguous pages in a statically paginated version of the content.

<span id="pg04" role="doc-pagebreak" title="4"/>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: separator
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational: True
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-pagelist

A navigational aid that provides a list of links to the pagebreaks in the content.

<nav role="doc-pagelist">
   <h2>Pages</h2<
   <ol>
      <li><a href="chapter.xhtml#Page_1">1</a></li>
      <li><a href="chapter.xhtml#Page_2">2</a></li>
      …
   </ol>
</nav>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: navigation
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-part

A major structural division in a work that contains a set of related sections dealing with a particular subject, narrative arc or similar encapsulated theme.

<section role="doc-part">
   <h1>Part One</h1>
   <section role="doc-chapter">
      <h2>Chapter 1</h2>
      …
   </section>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: True
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-preface

An introductory section that precedes the work, typically written by the author of the work.

<section role="doc-preface">
   <h1>Introduction:A Guide to the Galaxy</h1>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-prologue

An introductory section that sets the background to a work, typically part of the narrative.

<section role="doc-prologue">
   <header>
      <h1>Prologue</h1>
      <p>Chorus</p>
   </header>
   <p>Two households, both alike in dignity, …</p>
   …
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: landmark
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-pullquote

A distinctively placed or highlighted quotation from the current content designed to draw attention to a topic or highlight a key point.

Unlike a passage quoted from another source, a pullquote is a direct repetition of text in the current document. As a result, authors must ensure that the presentational occurrence is hidden from users of assistive technologies (e.g., using the aria-hidden attribute).

The following example shows the identification of a pullquote that will be presented elsewhere (e.g., via a script). In this case, the pullquote is not hidden as the marked text is not presentational.

<p>… I may die, but first you, my tyrant and tormentor, shall curse the sun that gazes on your misery.
   <span id="pq01" role="doc-pullquote">Beware, for I am fearless and therefore powerful.</span>
   I will watch with the wiliness of a snake, that I may sting with its venom. … </p>

The next example shows a pullquote that duplicates the text. This quote is hidden because it is for presentational purposes only.

<p>… Better habits pave the way to growth, and growth leads to greater happiness.</p>
<aside role="doc-pullquote" aria-hidden="true">
   Better habits pave the way to growth, and growth leads to greater happiness.
</aside>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: none
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:
doc-qna

A section of content structured as a series of questions and answers, such as an interview or list of frequently asked questions.

<section role="doc-qna">
   <h2>Interview with the Author</h2>
   <dl>
      <dt>Q: When did you begin writing this book?</dt>
      <dd>A: I first got the idea …</dd>
      …
   </dl>
</section>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: section
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-subtitle

An explanatory or alternate title for the work, or a section or component within it.

<header>
   <h1>Chapter 2 The Battle</h1>
   <p role="doc-subtitle">Once more unto the breach</p>
</header>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: sectionhead
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-tip

Helpful information that clarifies some aspect of the content or assists in its comprehension.

<aside role="doc-tip">
   <h3>Tip</h3>
   <p>You can assign a variable a new value that is the result
      of an expression involving its previous value.</p>
</aside>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: note
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  
doc-toc

A navigational aid that provides an ordered list of links to the major sectional headings in the content. A table of contents may cover an entire work, or only a smaller section of it.

<nav role="doc-toc">
   <h1>Contents</h1>
   <ol role="directory">
      <li><a href="preface_001.xhtml">Original Transcriber’s Notes:</a></li>
      <li><a href="introduction_001.xhtml">ETYMOLOGY.</a></li>
      <li><a href="epigraph_001.xhtml">EXTRACTS (Supplied by a Sub-Sub-Librarian).</a></li>
      <li><a href="chapter_001.xhtml">Chapter 1. Loomings.</a></li>
      …
   </ol>
</nav>
Characteristics:
Characteristic Value
Is Abstract:  
Superclass Role: navigation
Subclass Roles:  
Base Concept:  
Related Concepts:
Required Context Role:  
Required Owned Elements:
Required States and Properties:  
Supported States and Properties:  
Inherited States and Properties:  
Name From: author
Accessible Name Required: False
Inherits Name Required:
Children Presentational:
Inherits Presentational:  
Implicit Value for Role:  

Schemata

The HTML Working Group has incorporated the WAI-ARIA attributes into HTML 5. Official support for WAI-ARIA in HTML is provided in that specification.

Validation support for the roles defined in this module will be added once the specification reaches recommendation.

For information on incorporating WAI-ARIA into other grammars, refer to Appendix A of [[WAI-ARIA]]

Candidate Recommendation Exit Criteria

For this specification to be advanced to Proposed Recommendation, it has to be proven that roles defined in this specification have sufficient usage by the target communities. More specifically, it has to be documented that each Digital Publishing Role is used (at least in preliminary prototypes, not necessarily in full production yet) by two, independent document author/publisher as a means to structure document, where “usage” means:

In the case where the epub:type attribute is used, the author/publisher should also clearly state that the plan is to replace epub:type by the ARIA role attribute when this specification is published as a Recommendation. Furthermore, it is also required that at least two, independent authors/publishers use a comprehensive, although not necessarily complete, set of role attribute (as opposed to epub:type).

Change Log

Substantive changes since the last public working draft

Other substantive changes since the First Public Working Draft

Acknowledgments

The following people contributed to the development of this document.

Participants active in the DPUB-ARIA task force at the time of publication

The group would like to thank all members of the DAISY and EPUB 3 working groups who developed the structural semantics vocabulary from which this module was drawn, with special thanks to Sanders Kleinfeld for his assistance analyzing the initial set of semantics for inclusion.

Enabling funders

This publication has been funded in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) under contract number ED-OSE-10-C-0067. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.