Overlord Rules

Change Log





Vincent Archer

Initial Build


Circa 1993

Alex Dribin

Updated for Alpha



Chris Johnson

Revisions & Clarifications




OVERLORD is an open-ended, play-by-email, computer-moderated, generic fantasy game for any number of players. Players will interact in a fantasy world as a ‘faction’… setting their own goals, and trying to achieve those goals through the constraints of the game rules and by overcoming the inevitable encroachment of other players. Some players will attempt to carve out huge empires, some will set to become master magicians, some will become intrepid explorers… and some will be combinations of these or create new goals never before seen! The limit on the goals is only the imagination of the participating parties, and anyone can join at any time and still have fun!

This manual is divided into three sections: the overview, which describes how to start playing OVERLORD and the features of the average turn report; the full set of rules, which provides a step-by-step description of the game’s features and commands, and the reference, which provide your starting knowledge on many things in the game world.


OVERLORD is a play by Email game. All it takes to play is an email tool and an email address. After you have signed up, you will be sent an initial turn report, which extensively details your position in the game. After checking your status, and possibly discussing with other players in the game, you just determine your strategy, and create a file of “orders” (a template for this is added to your report) for your faction, which you then send back to the OVERLORD server. At regular intervals (about a week), the game server collects all the orders, progresses the game for a turn (covering a month of game time), and then sends all the players another report, and the cycle begins anew.

Series of events once signed up:

  1. Turn advanced by Overlord engine (1 month of game time)

  2. Turn reports generated by Overlord engine for each faction

  3. Reports sent via email to each faction owner

  4. Faction owners read reports, see progress of faction, communicate with other faction owners, create alliances, plan battles, update maps…

  5. Faction owners use orders template at the end of the report to create new orders for the next turn (using a text editor like notepad, or in the body of an email. Note: avoid HTML in body of email as some engines will reject)

  6. Faction owners send orders to game server via email before turn deadline (usually 1 week)

  7. Faction owners send any articles meant to be published for the game newspaper

  8. Some game engines send a confirmation of orders received, and some even send an ‘orders check’ which shows possible errors in orders allowing the faction owners to fix errors and resend orders

  9. Cycle begins anew

Server Email Addresses:

The game is served by an email address. All messages sent to the GAMEDOMAIN are intended for the game. You can send to three different types of addresses.


    1. Used for specific requests outside the game world.

    2. Use this to report problems with the game mechanism, or communicate directly with the GM.

  2. server@GAMEDOMAIN

    1. Messages for the game server and are automatically processed

    2. Meant for orders or articles

  3. entity@GAMEDOMAIN

    1. Messages will be forwarded to other players or entities in the game

    2. Players are humans within the game

    3. NPCs are non-human entities, and the GM will handle these messages

NOTE: On the stage of alpha-testing all messages should be sent to address “overlord.game@gmail.com


Your orders or articles are included in the text of the message. The server will not understand encoded message, text-enriched files appended, or anything fancy; you must use a standard, text format. No HTML formatting allowed.

Here is a very simplified sample order file (sent to server@GAMEDOMAIN):

GAME f99 mypassword alpha

NAME The Empire
UNIT U31416
NAME The Emperor
STUDY mage # next turn will study fire magic


The server will ignore all lines prior to the “GAME” line. That line is used to specify your faction identifier (here f99), in order to store the orders for the correct units. All players’ positions are protected by a password; all your orders must include the correct password or be rejected. The last parameter of the first line is the name of the game for the case if server runs more than one game at the same time.

The following lines are all your orders, until the “END” line is encountered. The server will ignore all lines after the “END” line. Note that all keywords, orders, “GAME” or ”END” keywords may be preceded by spaces, which are ignored. All keywords can also be written in mixed case; the game server will automatically put things back to uppercase or lowercase if necessary.

‘#” - is comment symbol. All written in the line after ‘#’ symbol will be ignored.

A mail can also include “PRESS” or “RUMOR” instead of the “GAME”. The “PRESS” keyword begins a press submission. That submission will be signed with your faction name and identifier, and included in the signed section of the game newspaper. The “RUMOR” denotes an anonymous article, which is not signed by the game server, and included in the rumors section of the game newspaper.

Example of a PRESS submission (sent to server@GAMEDOMAIN):

PRESS f99 mypassword alpha
The Empire has decreed that all unrevealed units trespassing through the lands will be attacked on sight.

If you submit multiple sets of orders, it is a good idea to wait until you have received the order check before submitting the next one. Due to the unpredictable
way the Internet mail s, your first set of orders might end up being received last, and thus overriding all your carefully refined plans.

Sample report

Here is a sample report, as you might get one after starting (depicted by »») with notes inter-dispersed to describe the report:

»» alpha Report for Turn 1 for The Empire [F99], archer@frmug.org
»» Next turn: 31 Dec 2008
»» // Faction stats
»» Faction funds:
»» 6218 coins[coin].
»» Control Points: 50 of 210

The report shows the game, turn number, faction name, and player address, followed by the date of the next scheduled turn run.

Each faction has a name, an identifier (which uniquely identifies the faction within the game, and is used when you submit orders) and most are associated with a human somewhere. There are two types of factions: Player factions, which are under the control of one player, and non-player faction, which represents a grouping of entities that are managed directly by the game server or the game master. You can think of the faction in game terms as a family clan, philosophy, religion, or anything that unifies people together.

Next is your faction funds. It represents a pool of resources (money and items) available at the beginning of the game to your faction. Faction fund money cannot be stolen, but can be used at anytime when a unit of your faction does not have enough cash at hand. Any time you need money for an action, and do not have enough money, the unit will use the faction fund. The WITHDRAW order may also be used to convert the faction fund money into coins or getting faction fund items in possession of withdrawing unit. Withdrawing or using the credit line can only be done in cities, but not in the wilderness. Upkeep of your units can be drawn from faction funds anywhere, as it’s an automatic function over which you do not have control.

Finally, the Control Points indicates your faction size and the strength of your control over it. A beginning faction has not much in the way of strength, so controlling it is easy. Your starting faction has 200 control points. You use one control point for each fraction of 20 men or creature in each unit. Thus, a unit with a leader uses up 1 control point, as a 20-strong miner unit, but a 21-man goblin unit would use 2 control points. A mage needs an additional control point to manage, as does a hero.

Through Titles, a faction may increase the number of control points. The system of Titles is detailed later, but roughly, a minor title increase your control point total by 5, a standard title by 10, and a major title by 20. The title of Overlord gives you 50 control points, but you’ll have to figure out how to win it.

Another way of increasing the number of control points is to own some key structures. Magic guilds, Guild houses and major Fortresses are such structures. Details on the structures and how they are controlled follows later.

»» // Diplomacy (Stances)
»» Default attitude is Neutral

»» Attitude to Imperials [NPC1] is Allied
»» Attitude to Citizens [NPC2] is Friendly
»» Attitude to Mages [NPC3] is Friendly
»» Attitude to Creatures [NPC6] is Hostile

The diplomacy section appears next. This lists how you will treat each faction in the game. The default, for any faction that is not explicitly specified will be neutral - neither hostile nor specially forthcoming. You can declare specific factions having a more friendly stance, or a more hostile one. The above defaults are reasonable assumptions, but you may start with no specific stances.

You can ask for a stance list of factions toward your faction. The turn report will then include how each faction you are in contact with views you. You cannot know a faction stance toward you until you are in contact, i.e. two units of the factions can see each other.

Faction Stances:

Stance Toward Faction

That Faction Stance Toward You



Ally, Friendly, Neutral

You will automatically assist that faction’s units in battle as if they were your own faction. They may pillage areas you control.


Hostile, Enemy

You will not assist them and they may not pillage. Enemies will attack you on sight.


Ally, Friendly, Neutral

You will be able to trade with that faction, and you will allow that faction to conduct business, harvest resources and produce items even in locations that you control.


Hostile, Enemy

No trading, nor harvesting. Enemies will attack you on sight.


Ally, Friendly, Neutral, Hostile, Enemy

You will let that faction go about its own business, except in areas you are controlling. In these areas, you will allow units of that faction free passage, but will prevent them from using the local resources. Enemies will attack you on sight.


Ally, Friendly, Neutral, Hostile, Enemy

Your guards to prevent any movement or business by that faction. You will not allow units of that faction to move in your territory, nor allow it to use any of the resources. However, an established unit will be let unmolested, unless it wants to force its way. Enemies will attack you on sight.


Ally, Friendly, Neutral, Hostile, Enemy

Declaring a faction your enemy means total war. You will attack all enemies on sight.

The main part of the report is divided into several sections.

The first section details all global events your units can see, or were a part of, in various locations, followed by individual unit events.

// Global Events

»» Day 1 166 taxes from Windfort[L15] collected at Windfort[L15].
»» Day 1 Wellbarrow Valley[L90] was pillaged.

»» Day 30 166 taxes from Windfort[L15] collected at Windfort[L15].
»» Day 30 Wellbarrow Valley[L90] was pillaged.

// Units

»» Nirmal Yadav [U600] at Massada[L278], Sheriff of Massada,

»»   1 hero[hero] has: 1 hunting hound[houn] (1 equiped), 999
»»   coins[coin], 4 horses[hrse] (1 equiped). Weight 480.
»»   Capacity 591, riding 515. Skills: 2nd observation[obse]
»»   (180), 2nd scouting[scou] (90), 1st combat[cmbt] (30),

»» 1st magecraft (30), May learn: 3rd observation[obse],
»»   1st hillswalk[hiwk], 1st forestwalk[fowk], 1st
»»   desertwalk[dewk], 1st swampwalk[swwk], 1st
»»   icewalk[icwk], 1st ambush[ambu], 1st stealth[stea], 2nd
»»   combat[cmbt], 1st blades[blde], 1st melee[mele], 1st
»»  archery[arch]. Stats: init: 2, att: 1, def: 1, dmg:
»»   1, life: 4, CP: 2, obs: 4.  Upkeep: 22 coins.

The unit’s name and identifier are given first, as is the composition of the unit. There are three main types of units. The first type is leader units. These units comprise a single playing character, a hero or leader. The second type is follower units. These units comprise a variable number of characters. The last type is creature units. These units also comprise a variable number of creatures. Each type of unit has differing limitations on skills, equipment and available orders.

»» Nirmal Yadav [U600]’s actions:
»» Day 1 - Unit enters Massada [L278]
»» Day 1 - Unit studies combat [cmbt]
»» Day 15 - Unit achieves 1st combat [cmbt]

»» Day 16 - Unit claims the title of Sheriff [shrf] in Massada [L278]!
»» Day 16 - Unit studies magecraft [mage]
»» Day 30 - Unit achieves 1st magecraft [mage]

A turn is equal to one game month. One game month is 30 days. There are basically two kinds of activities, those who take no (gaming) time to process, and those who take one or more (gaming) day to complete. You can perform as many of the first type of activities each game day, and one (and only one) of the second type. Each order executed gives out a line in the report, showing the execution status.

For each unit, you will get a report of the events that occurred during the turn, and a complete unit description. Here, two events occurred: The unit joined your faction on day 1, and it became a fighter with combat 1 (and Sheriff of the city) on day 15, and a mage with magecraft 1 on day 30.

Unit & Skill Information:

Each faction is composed of a number of “units”, each unit being a group of one or more people or creatures that have sworn allegiance to your faction, or are under your faction’s direct control somehow. You start the game with one or more starting units provided by the game master. More units can be recruited during the course of the games, or a unit can grow.

A faction is destroyed and removed from the game if all of its units are killed or disbanded, i.e. the faction has no units left, and thus, no possibility of getting one again. The server does not consider your starting units as anything special. As long as any unit of the faction survives, the spirit of your faction lives on, and you can bounce back and grow again. If your faction is wiped out, you can opt to join the game again if the game was not yet closed by the game master.

For each unit that belongs to your faction at the end of the turn, you’ll get a report. If you transfer the loyalty of a unit to another faction, you will get a report section for that unit, but the new faction will see only the full unit description, not the event report. Control transfer occurs only at the end of the turn.

Units cannot mix; you can’t add a man from a follower unit to a creature unit, nor mix different types of creatures together. Each man, hero or creature is called a “figure”. You can transfer figures between units of the same type, i.e. a man from one follower unit to another, a gargoyle from a gargoyle unit to another, and so on. The only exception is for leader/hero units; since these units can comprise only one figure, you cannot add nor remove the hero from one. It is not possible to transfer a figure from or to a unit of different faction, even an ally.

Leader units may hold a title. Titles are associated with a location, and may be gained or lost under a variety of circumstances.

Each unit may have a number of possessions. The sample unit has three different items in its possession. Each item may be unique, or exist in multiples. Items may freely be handed between units, even differing types of units. Some type of items may also be equipped, i.e. marked as used by the unit. There are restrictions on which items may be used and how many in each item category.

The biggest distinguishing factor between units is the list of their skills. Each unit, except the most unskilled ones, has one or more skills available. For single-figure units, this represents the skill of the figure. For units with multiple figures, all figures in the unit are supposed to have the same skill at the same level of experience.

Each skill is characterized by a name (magecraft), a tag ([mage]), a level of achievement (1st) and the amount of days studied in the skill (30). The level of achievement represent the mastery of the skill by the unit. When the unit has a small experience in the skill, it will be at “novice” level. Typically, 1st level is required to be able to use the skill. As a hint, the number of days spent studying the skill are included in parentheses just after the skill tag.

A normal unit may study skills up to the 1st level. The skill description includes the amount of time that a unit must spend studying to gain that level. After that first level, only practice in the skill will gain additional experience, enabling the unit to reach 2nd level, 3rd level and so on. There is no limit to the level a unit may reach in this manner. The exception to this is all combat skills; a unit may study further levels in combat skills, up to the 2nd level for follower units, 3rd level for leader units and 4th level for heroes. Leaders and heroes can also learn the 2nd level in a any skill, except magic.

There are four types of skills:

* Basic skills may be learned by any unit, at any time. There is an additional restriction: a follower unit may only learn one basic skill. Scouting is an exception to that rule: a unit that knows scouting may also learn combat, but it is limited to 1st level in any combat skill. Scouting allows followers to move on their own.

* Advanced skills require a pre-requisite skill to be learned. For example, Blades is an advanced skill, which requires combat skill. The advanced skill can be learned only after 1st level in the requisite skill has been achieved.

* Specialist skills require a specific structure or teacher to be present to be available for study. There are basic specialist skills (which anyone can learn immediately) and advanced specialist skills (which require both teaching and a requisite skill). For example, Necromancy is a specialist skill that has certain mage skill prerequisites, and also requires a teacher or structure in order for a leader to learn it.

* Creature skills cannot be studied, ever. A unit either has it or doesn’t. Such skills are only available for creature units. For example, Grope is a combat skill used by zombies in battle.

Magecraft is a unique skill. See the detailed rules on magic for all the specificities surrounding that skill.

The description of a unit always include all non-basic skills that are available for study to the unit.


A unit has both a weight, which is the sum of the weight of all objects and figures it carries, and a capacity, which is the amount of weight it may carry. If the weight is less or equal to the capacity, the unit will move at the best speed it may achieve. If the weight is more than the capacity of the unit, it will slow down. If a unit has more weight than it may carry walking, it will walk at a reduced pace. A unit that carries more than 50% over its capacity will simply not move.

A unit may be walking, riding, swimming or flying. The ability of a unit to walk, ride, swim or fly is affected by its race, skills, equipment or magic. There are races (like centaurs, winged men or oundins) that posses intrinsic ability to run, fly or swim. Learning skills (such as running speed or swimming) may modify unit’s capacities fore these movement modes. Equipping such items as riding, flying or swimming beasts (horses, wyverns, etc.), various contraptions (canoe, flying carpet, etc.) may also extend units’ capacities.

There are also magic enchantments that may increase or decrease unit’s running, flying or swimming abilities.

The capacity determines which mode of transport is available. For units with horses, the number of horses equipped determines the capacity for riding, all other horses are “dead weight”. If a unit may ride, but does not want to, it just unequipps (dismount from) the horses.

Unit Statistics:

Next, there is a summary of the combat-related characteristics of the unit. The stats summarize the main characteristics. The following statistics are available (the higher the number, the better):

* Initiative (ini) indicates the unit’s initiative in combat. During a round of combat, all units will act in the order of their initiative ratings, so the highest initiative unit acts first, then the next rating, and so on. All units with the same rating act at the same time.
* Melee (att) indicates the unit’s attack power in melee. If hand-to-hand fighting occurs, the unit will attack using that level.
* Missile (mis) indicates the unit’s attack power with missile weapons. If missile attacks occur, the unit will attack using that level.
* Defense (def) indicates the unit’s defensive abilities in all combat situations.
* Damage (dmg) indicates how many wounds (how severe) a successful hit will inflict to a single figure.
* Ranged Damage (rng) indicates how many wounds (how severe) a successful ranged hit will inflict to a single figure.
Other statistics may appear, if applicable:

* Stealth (ste) indicates the unit’s ability to disguise itself, makes itself unnoticed and sneak around other units. Stealth is used after some modifications during combat and during normal turns.
* Observation (obs) indicates the unit’s ability to spot key units and engage the most important targets, and to find others. Observation is used after some modifications during combat and during normal turns.
* Life (life) indicates the amount of damage a unit must receive before it dies in combat.
* Hits (hit) indicates the number of times a unit may hit during a combat. A unit with multiple hits will strike once at his initiative rating, then gets a penalty of 2 to that rating and strike again, and so on, decreasing the initiative by two each time. A unit capable of striking 5 times is fearsome indeed.

Finally, the tactics section governs the behavior of the unit regarding combat. Its settings govern the unit’s participation in combat, positioning, movement and fighting. See the detailed rules on combat for an explanation on each setting.

If a unit died during the turn, it will still appear in your report, along with the events that occurred until the date of its demise.

Structures & Ships:

After the list of units you may get the list of buildings and ships, also belonging to your faction

»» High Eagle Fort[B3] fortress at Dull Plains[L165].
»» Fishing Eagle[B2] fishing boat at Blue Ocean[L4].
»» 20 fish [fish]. Weight 540. Capacity 800 (swimming)


The last part of the report deals with the locations.

»» Locations:
 »» Massada [L278], city, located in Tholian Plains [L216], plains.

The world is divided for gaming purposes into locations. Each location has a name, an identifier, and a terrain type. There are three distinct types of locations:

* Territories (or “country” locations) are hexagon-shaped regions, each of the dominant type of the terrain there. As the shape implies, territories usually have six neighbors, located north, south, northwest, southwest, northeast and southeast. Rumors has it that some magical locations have differing, even irregular shapes.
* Inner locations are always located within another location, as the name implies. It is possible to move from the inner location to the containing area, and vice-verse. Some inner locations can have restrictions on the type and number of units that can enter them. People inside an inner location will usually see the outer location and all directions from there, but will not see nor interact with units in the outer location.
* Constructions such as buildings or ships are always located within another location. People inside a building or ship can see and interact with people in the containing location, and generally act as if they were in the same location.

»» Last month was winter storm season, next month should be spring fair.

All territories have a climate. Climate influences the productivity of people, the resources of a territory, and the travel rates. The year is divided in twelve, three for each season. Winter lowers the overall productivity of people and territories and reduce the movement rates, but increases the amount of entertainment available. Spring will also increase entertainment in civilized areas. Summer increases productivity for all natural products in territories, and autumn is a period of increased taxes.

»» Population: 5621. Wages: $11, taxes: $11244.

Territories and some inner locations have a native population. That population represents the number of people living in the area at the end of the month. Population will vary according to different factors: births, deaths, migrations and recruitment. The number of people living in the area in turn dictates several factors, such as the level of wages and the amount of taxes that can be levied.

Structures never have native population, and some inner locations don’t either.

»» For hire: 281 followers [man] at $64, 2 leaders [ldr] at $320.
»» For sale: 17 swords [swrd] at $151, 15 mules [mule] at $99.
»» Buying: 56 horses [hrse] at $45, 231 wheat [whea] at $13.
»» Market days: 15th, 30th.

All locations, except the most desert ones such as water bodies provide a recruitment market, where people can be recruited. Usually, only followers are available, but large provinces and all cities will also have some leaders offering their services.

Most cities also have a market, where items may be bought or sold. Prices and quantity may vary, as demand is fulfilled, goods bought out, and the overall population and wealth of a location varies.

Most territories also have native resources. Those resources can be exploited if you have units with the appropriate skill, without paying for the extraction process. Some territories are rich, while other are poor. For example, forest territories have lots of wood, mountains are usually good sources of stone, territories near oceans and lakes have fishes, and so on.

»» Titles: Sheriff [shrf] (minor, requires combat [cmbt], $250), held by
»» Nirmal Yadav [U600] of The Empire [F99].

Some locations have available titles. The title can be claimed by a leader unit of your faction, provided that you are able to fulfill the requirements of the title, pay for it, and it is free.

If a title is held by another, you may challenge the title holder. The challenger must have a 10% higher skill than the title holder to succeed, or a skill equal to the 90% of the challengee if the title holder is not present to defend his title. If the title requires payment, the challenger always pays, regardless of the outcome of the challenge, and the challengee receives half the amount paid, regardless of the outcome again. The amount of skill necessary for the challenge is not disclosed; you have to guess it, but is revealed to the challengee after

Titles can also be given to other units.

»» Directions:
 »» Out, to Tholian Plains [L216], plains, 1 day.
 »» SouthWest, to Massada Bay [L282], ocean, 4 days sailing.
 »» From outer location:
 »» SouthWest, to Massada Bay [L282], ocean, 6 days sailing.
 »» NorthEast, to Tholian Road [L215], plains, 7 days.
 »» North, to Tholian Plains [L213], plains, 9 days.
 »» NorthWest, to Tholian Plains [L214], plains, 9 days.
 »» SouthEast, to Massada Pass [L280], hills, 12 days.
 »» South, to Massada Highs [L281], mountains, impassable.

The directions available from the location are listed afterward. The first list shows all the available directions, the destination, and time needed to reach that destination, in days. For inner locations, there are two such lists. The second list shows all the available directions from the outer location. All lists are ordered in increasing time for travel.

When moving from one location to another, a unit may either specify the destination by its identifier, or by the direction specified. Use the entire word, or only the abbreviation shown in uppercase letters for the direction. Examples: MOVE NW, MOVE L216, MOVE SouthWest

Movement from one location to another takes at least one day, unless you are entering or leaving a structure. The movement rates indicated are for walking units. Riding units move 50% faster than walking units, and flying units move at a fixed rate of 4 days per territory crossed. Sailing is handled differently. Moving in and out of inner locations takes 1 day.

The movement rate depends on various factors, such as the type of the starting and destination regions, the presence of roads or natural obstacles and the climate. The rates indicated in the report are valid for the coming turn.

Some directions are marked as impassable. It means that, for any of your units, it is not possible to move in that direction. This usually occurs only in difficult and arduous terrain, such as mountains, jungles or swamps. Also, oceans and lakes are always impassable naturally. There are two ways of getting across an impassable direction. The first way is to find the appropriate mode of transport, such as boats for water travel, flying mounts or contraptions for mountains, and the like.

If the direction is traversable, the travel time will be shown, and the method of travel required will be displayed. Note that, if a method different from walking is shown, the travel time indicated is for a unit using that method of travel, and walking in that direction is usually prohibited.

Flying units can always move in any direction. Sailing units can only move from one water-covered territory to another, or to a normal territory that borders the water-covered territory. A sailing unit may also move along the coast, if both territories are adjacent to the same body of water, but it will take the double of walking time. For example a ship that landed in L216 may move directly to L214, but will take 18 days doing so.

»» Events during turn:
 »» 1 – Nirmal Yadav [L600] of The Empire [F99], 1 hero, arrives.
 »» 14 - Bal Simba [U219] of The Mages [NPC3], 1 hero, arrives.
 »» 15 - Bal Simba [U219] of The Mages [NPC3], departs to Massada Earth Guild
 »» [L279]
 »» 27 - Nathan [U1245], 1 leader, arrives, along with Caravan [U1246], 23
 »» followers.

Events in cities are also included in reports. The events are mostly the coming and going of people about their business, but other notable events are included, such as buildings started and completed, battles, proclamations, and so on. You will get the report for all locations in which you did had a presence during the turn, but only for the period for which you had units in there. If you are merely traveling through a territory, your report will only cover what happened while you were there.

 »» + Massada Militia [U218] of Citizens [NPC2], 50 followers, has: 50 swords
 »» [swrd], 50 hide shields [hshl], 50 leather armors [larm].
 »» * Nirmal Yadav [U600] of The Empire [F99], 1 hero, Sheriff of Massada
 »» [L278], has: 1 horse [hrse], 1 sword [swrd], 1 plate mail [plat],
 »» 300 coins [coin].
 »» - Nathan [U1245], 1 leader. Leading:
 »» - Caravan [U1246], 23 followers, has: 23 wagons [wago], 17 swords
 »» [swrd], 21 iron tools [tool], 5 plows [plow].

If you have at least one unit in the location at the end of the turn, your report will include a list of all units present in the location. The units marked with a ‘*’ are your own units. Units marked with a ‘+’ are units whose faction you have declared at least friendly, provided that you can see their affiliation. Units marked with ‘-‘ are neutral or worse units.

Units with stealth may not be included in your report, if none of the units present have an observation high enough. Note that, while you are moving, your observation effectiveness is lowered by 1, so if you are just entering a territory at the end of the turn, you might not see everyone there.

The units may advertise their faction for all to see, or you may be able to deduce their affiliation if your observation rating is three higher than their normal stealth rating. If you can see a unit’s faction, you will treat that unit as befit your stances (i.e. specific stance or default). If you cannot see a unit’s faction, the default stance applies, unless you have declared a better stance toward that unit’s faction, and that faction has declared yours at least friendly. It is then supposed that unit (discreetly) provides bona fide identification and enjoy its privileged status.

The nature and size of a unit are always visible if you can see the unit, as are the unit’s possession above a given weight and size. Coins, for example, are not visible in the report (except for your units), while horses, swords and the like are. The exception is your units; as a reminder, their entire possessions are listed.

One of the units above is leading a “stack”. A stack is a set of units, all together, that share some abilities and orders. The first unit of a stack is a leader unit (leader or hero). Followers and creatures cannot lead a stack. All types of units may appear in the stack, including other stacks. If a stack is included in another stack, the smaller stack is irrelevant; all units are in the same global stack. The only effect of the smaller stack is if the smaller stack leader departs from the global stack; all units following it will also depart at the same time, and the smaller stack become a separate stack with the same structure as reported.

Units in a given stack will all join a battle if the stack is attacked or decides to attack, regardless of their tactic setting. Any unit within the stack can be attacked, but only the stack leader may order an attack. If an unit within the stack orders an attack, it will break off the stack first, then attack.

A unit in a stack ordered to move will depart from the stack first, then move. Only the leader of the stack may move the entire stack. When a stack moves, the entire stack moves as an ensemble. The weight of the entire stack is summed across all units, and the capacities for each travel mode are also added. The final result determines the travel mode, so a unit carrying more than its capacity may benefit from another unit (even in a different substack) spare capacity. In your unit report, a stack leader will list the capacities of the entire stack he leads, not just his own. A substack leader will list the capacities of the substack.

Follower units may not give a move order, unless they have the scouting skill. The usual method of travel for followers is to join a stack. Creatures also cannot move. If a creature unit is not in a stack at the end of the turn, the unit’s faction will revert to the Creatures faction, so you need to keep any creatures safely under control of a leader.

»» » Massada Earth Guild [L279], mage tower, inner location (1 day).
»» Teaching: 2nd earth magics [eart], 1st stone grasp [sgrp].
»» » Massada Marketplace [L283], marketplace.
»» - Marketroid [U2324], 1 leader.

Following the list of units comes a list of the inner locations of the current one, if any. For each location, the name, id and type is specified. If the location is reported as an inner location, you cannot see what units are staying inside, nor interact with them (and, conversely, they cannot see and interact with you). You can enter the location freely (unless it is guarded against your faction).

Some locations are also a seat of teaching. You can enter these and study the skills proposed, up to the level proposed, even if you normally do not have the possibility of studying the skill up to the proposed level. For example, the Earth Guild allow you to study earth magic up to level 2, even if, as a leader, you should not be able to. It also allows you to study a specific magic skill, the stone grasp, which is normally not available for study anywhere else. To benefit from the study, the unit must reside inside the location.

Locations not reported as inner locations are open structures. You can come and leave, and freely interact with units in the outer location as if you were in the same location.

The last part is a knowledge report.

»» Item knowledge:
 »» coin [coin]: The monetary unit.
 »» mana [mana]: The magical power unit.
 »» sword [swrd]: Weight 1. The basic hand weapon for melee. Equipped using
 »» 1st blades [blde]. Equipment category: weapon, 1 per figure.
 »» Equipment gives +3 to melee, +2 to defense.
 »» plate armor [plat]: Weight 15. A heavy-duty protection for knights and
 »» high-level combat units. Equipped using novice combat [cmbt].
 »» Equipment category: armor, 1 per figure. Equipment gives +3 to
 »» defense, -3 to initiative.
 »» horse [hrse]: Weight 100, capacity: 150/walking, 95/riding (200 while
 »» equipped). The noble transportation system, suited for small caravans,
 »» and fast courier duty. Equipment category: mount, 1 per figure.
 »» Equipment gives +1 to melee, +1 to defense, +3 to initiative.

That report describes all the knowledge your faction has acquired. There are two main parts to the knowledge report. The first part includes all the items that have been discovered by the faction during the turn. This includes all the items in possession of units of the faction, all items sold or bought at locations where a unit of the faction is present, all items produced at a location that was explored by a unit, and finally, all items mentioned in a skill description.

For each item, the main characteristics are reported, along with a description. Each item has a weight, which may be 0. Some items have a capacity for specific travel modes. For example, a horse provides 150 units of weight when travelling at walking speed, or 200 if it used to ride.

Some items may be equipped, meaning that a unit with a specific skill may use it. For these items, the skill and level required for the use is specified, the item’s category, and the benefits. For example, the sword described is equipped using the swordplay skill. Most categories allow the unit to equip only one item. More than one item may be available per figure based on the item. For example, a man may equip two magical rings (one on each hand) at the same time, or have two hunting hounds (a leash in each hand). However, a man cannot put on two pieces of armor or two pairs of gloves.

Equipment Category



Horse (hrse)


Sword (swrd)


Leather Jerkin (leat)


Hide Shield (hshd)


Camouflage Cloak (cclo)


Coif (coif)


Iron Gauntlets (irga)


Water Boots (fbot)


Hunting Hound (houn)


Ring of Invisibility (rtiv)


Amulet of Life (amli)


Pick (pick)


Food (food)

Following the items reports comes the skill report.

»» Skill knowledge:
 »» 1st magecraft [mage]: The basic magic skill. Requires 30 days and
 »» $2/day to reach the level. Only leaders may study this skill. This is
 »» a basic skill. This is a magic skill.
 »» 1st combat [cmbt]: The basic combat skill. Requires 30 days and $1/day
 »» to reach the level. This is a basic skill. This is a combat skill.
 »» Gives +1 to melee. Gives +1 to defense.
 »» 1st blades [blde]: The art of bladed weapons. Requires 30 days and
 »» $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st combat [cmbt] to learn. This
 »» is a combat skill. Gives +1 to melee. Gives +1 to defense.
 »» 1st horse breaking [hors]: Mastering wild horses and converting them into
 »» mounts. Requires 30 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 »» beast mastery [beas] to learn. Harvests 1 horse [hrse] in 20 days.
 »» 1st beast mastery [beas]: The skill of animal taming, control and
 »» raising. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a
 »» basic skill.

This part includes all the skills that have been studied by the faction during the turn. This includes all the new skill levels reached by units of the faction, all skills taught or available at locations where a unit of the faction is present, all skills referred to by an item in the item report, and finally, all skills mentioned in another skill description.

Note that, once you reach a skill level, the description of the next level is included in the skill report, so that you’ll know what the skill looks like at that level. However, skill descriptions never include what new skills they open up for study; this is something you discover also only when you achieve the skill level.

For more details on skills, see the detailed rules.

Detailed rules

The following chapter details all the rules, tables and other relevant elements pertaining to the game, and also lists the orders. A separate annex lists all the orders.


As explained, factions are affiliation. There are three types of factions within the game. Non-player factions are under direct control of the gamemaster (GM), and mostly running on autopilot. Those factions are:

* The Imperials [f01]. That faction controls the imperial city itself, and the surrounding land, and its leader holds the title of Overlord. All players’ factions are declared friendly by The Imperials unless they perform some hostile actions against Empire.

As a result, battles in Imperial lands are very difficult, as the Imperial’s guards will always defend the attacked unit. Imperial lands are considered a safe country.

If you manage to hold the title of Overlord, the Imperial’s faction, and the Citizens will automatically declare you ally. But if you lose the title, Imperials and Citizens will declare you enemy.

* The Citizens [f02]. That faction represents the bulk of the population. It owns the various militia that defends civilized country far from the imperial lands. You may consider the population of all locations to be composed of Citizens.

Citizens have a default of friendly, regardless of your actions, except for notable exceptions.

* The Mages [N/A]. That faction is independent and runs the various mage guilds around the world. It is a loose association, and generally does not hold power. The mages are not implemented in alpha test

Mages have you declared as friendly, unless you attack them, in which case you will be declared enemy.

* The Free People [N/A] hold the role of Citizens in areas outside of Imperial influence. The Free People are not implemented in alpha test

* The Outlaws [f04] are hostile bands of brigands, robbers and raiders that sometime plague the land. Outlaws have a default of enemy to players and will attack their units on sight.

* Creatures [f03] regroup all wild units. Creatures have a default of enemy, i.e. they will attack you on sight. Certain skills will prevent that.

Note that Imperials, Citizens and Mages are ally of each other. Furthermore, Mages and Free People are also ally of each other. Attack one, face all of the others!

Diplomatic stances

The diplomatic stances affect how faction interacts. There are five diplomatic stances toward factions, in order from the most to least friendly:

* Ally
 You almost consider this faction brother in arms. You generally act as if said faction’s units were of your faction, granting them all privileges of safe passage, allowing to collect taxes, harvest resources, conduct business and so on. If any unit of the allied faction becomes involved in battle, you will also fight on its side.

* Friendly
 You consider this faction trustworthy, and welcome in your lands. For areas where you have units standing GUARD, you will grant free passage, allow them to harvest resources, conduct business, recruit people and so on. However, you will not allow them to gather taxes, nor will you join a battle in which they become involved on their behalf. You might even be, reluctantly, obliged by other, stronger, commitments to face them in battle. You will also accept any material gift from a faction declared Friendly.

* Neutral
 You don’t have anything special against that faction, but then, you do not have any reason to allow them special privileges. For owned areas (see land ownership)  they will not be allowed to gather taxes, nor harvest resources. Units of that faction will still be able to go about their own business, but that’s all; they can move freely, buy, work, trade, recruit.

* Hostile
 This faction isn’t in your “most favored faction” list. For areas that you own, the faction’s units will not be allowed to enter (they will be allowed to enter and leave inner locations, or depart) and must retreat. A unit MARCHing into an area you own may enter but if the area is guarded this will cause a battle. For areas that you own, the faction’s units will not be allowed to gather taxes, harvest resources, buy or sell on the market, nor recruit any men.

If two factions hostile to each other want to GUARD the same area, a battle will also ensue.

* Enemy
 This faction is a sworn opponent. Any unit that specifically hasn’t AVOID or DEFEND as a combat stance will attack the faction’s unit on sight.

You have a default stance. That stance applies to the factions for which you did not specify a particular stance. You may declare a specific faction as having the same stance has your current default stance; if you later change the default, the faction keeps its explicit stance. Conversely, you can cancel the stance for a specific faction, which then reverts to the default.

These interactions rules are valid for units whose faction (allegiance) you can see. For any unit whose faction is unknown, you will also apply the default stance. There is an exception to that rule: if you would not accept something from a unit due to the default stance, but would if you knew the unit’s faction, that unit will be allowed to give you the objects. Similarly, even if your default is neutral or worse, you will allow unit whose friendliness is not apparent to harvest resources. However, you will not join a battle if you don’t see the unit’s faction, nor will you allow it to collect taxes.

You never know what is the stance another faction has toward you, except if the faction has units standing guard. In that case, the unit’s allegiance is always visible, and you will see on the report if the unit considers you ally, friend, neutral, hostile or enemy. If you’re considered enemy, it would be better to remain anonymous, as the guarding unit will attack you first thing upon noticing you. If you are entering a region, perhaps a RETREAT order would be good.


Units represent the faction’s temporal power. Units are required to interact with the world. A unit is one person or a group of persons, sharing their possessions, skills and characteristics, all loyal to one faction. Units can receive orders, which they’ll execute faithfully to the very best of their possibilities. If a unit does not execute an order, it’s either because you made a mistake, are exceeding your control, or it is simply subject to a subtle mind-control attack by one of your enemies.

A unit can contain only one type of character, usually called a figure. See the rules on races for more details. Units are composed of indistinguishable figures, all having the same skills and statistics, and cooperating into handling their possessions. Units that can have more than one figure in it can be split or combined “ad infinitum”, provided that all figures are of the same race. There is no real reason, apart from control points, to have a unit of 50 men or five units of ten men each. The former is easier to manage and control, the latter can be more specialized. Each faction will adopt a trade-off suited to its style.  Figures cannot be transferred from one faction to another, only whole units.

To transfer a unit, the unit must encounter a unit of the destination faction during the turn. The unit’s allegiance will then be transferred, and the unit will stop executing orders and revert to the default of WORK. Giving whole units follow the same rules as giving individual items. 

o Vital statistics

A unit has a certain number of vital characteristics. If the characteristics are different from the default values, they will appear in your unit report. The characteristics are the following, and have a default of 0, unless otherwise specified:

* Initiative. Initiative is used in battle, to determine the order in which units act during a battle round (see below). High initiatives are good.

* Melee. Melee represent the strength of a melee (i.e. contact) attack in battle for the attacking unit. Melee is used to determine a successful hit or not, directly related to the defense level of the unit under attack. A high melee vs. a low defense will almost always result in a hit, and vice versa.

* Defense. Defense represent the power of the defense against all physical attacks in battle (not magical effects, except magical effects that enhance attacks). Defense is used as is for melee attacks, and modified for missile attacks. Extremely high defenses can thwart even the most powerful melee attacks.

* Missile. Missile represent the skill of missile (i.e. ranged) attacks in battle. Use of the missile attack require the use of missile skills. Higher missile statistics will yield a more successful chance for a hit each round.

* Life. Life represents the level of damage that a figure in the unit can sustain during a battle until it dies. By default, this value is 1. When a figure in a unit has suffered that many hits, it dies.

* Hits. Hits represent the number of time a unit may perform an attack each round.  By default, the unit hits only once per round.

* Damage. Damage represent how many wounds (how severe) a successful hit will inflict to a single figure.

* Ranged Damage. Ranged Damage represent how many wounds (how severe) a successful ranged hit will inflict to a single figure.

* Mana. Mana represents the maximum number of mana a unit may keep. If the unit has less mana available than this mana maximum, it gains mana every two turns. If the unit has more mana that this value, it loses mana at an ever increasing rate. Mana is used to cast spells, and can be depleted and replenished over the course of many rounds of combat.

* Stealth. Stealth represents the ability of the unit to hide and remain unnoticed. Stealth is used on the battlefield and during normal game time. A unit with stealth will appear on a report only if your unit has an observation  higher or equal to the stealth, the unit has decided to make public its presence, the unit is GUARDing, using a cash-producing skill or using a skill that harvest a non-zero weight item out of the area, one of  your units is stacked under that unit, or the unit is stacked beneath one of  your leaders. Note that the last effect applies only for direct stacking; if  the stealthy unit is stacked indirectly under another unit, only careful checking of the stack’s combined weight will yield an induce about the presence of the stowaway.

Stealth is also used for specialized thievery skills such as pick-pocketing and there are even rumors of an assassination skill.

During a movement, a unit has its stealth factor reduced by 1 for every 20 figures in the unit, rounded down.  A leader or follower unit of 19 or less travels at normal stealth, a unit of  50 would travel with a penalty to stealth of two. Flying units begins  travel with a +1 stealth bonus; this bonus last until the end of the move  and disappear upon landing. Sailing units have their effective stealth  divided by two. [all these modifications are not implemented in alpha]

This modified stealth applies only to the detection of a unit’s presence; it  does not apply to the unit’s faction visibility. Thus, a unit of 100 men travelling has an effective stealth of -5, but an observer will still not be able to divine its faction.

A unit on GUARD will only be able to intercept units it can see.

* Observation. It is the pendant of the stealth. Observation dictates if you will be able to see a unit’s activities and presence in your report.  Furthermore, if your observation is three higher than the normal (unmodified) stealth of the unit, you will be able to guess to which faction the unit  belongs. This apply only to the normal stealth, not including the modifiers from travel.

o Capacity for travel

The full mechanics on movement orders are discussed under the MOVE orders rules, see below.

All units have a weight, which is equal to the sum of the weight of all of its components, figures and items. Note that items that weigh 0 still contribute to the weight; you can consider them weighing 1/1000th of a unit. Thus, a coin weights nothing, but 3000 coins would weight 3 units. This weight is included in your report. For stack leaders, the weight reported is the entire stack or sub-stack.

All units also have a capacity for movement, in all of the four modes of travel available (walking, riding, sailing, flying). Again, this is equal to the sum of the capacity of all the components. For example, a leader may carry 100 units walking, and a horse 150, so a unit with a leader on a horse can walk with 250 units of weight; 170 being already used by the leader and horse themselves. Some skills will also increase or even decrease capacities. For example, the 1st level in plainswalk allow the unit to add 10 to its riding capacity, due to a greater experience in riding thru wide plains. 

Note that the capacity may very depending on whether or not an item is equipped.

When selecting a movement mode, the weight of the entire stack is compared to all the movement capacities. For any capacity below the weight, the movement is impossible. For all remaining capacities, the travel time is computed, and the movement mode that is the fastest used (thus, flying units may walk during storms). If the weight exceed all capacities, the unit may still walk. A penalty of three times in % the percentage of excess weight is added to travel time, up to a travel time of 60 days. If an over-encumbered unit would take 2 months to move, it will stay in place.

Usually, a stack that is moving is called a caravan (or an army, if its intentions are hostile), and the leader is thus the caravan master (or a general). If the stack is sailing, it is sometimes called a fleet, and the leader is thus the captain or the admiral!

If a stack is in an area of water, and manages to lose (due to pirate attacks or the desertion of a unit, or sabotage) its sailing capacity, it is stranded and sinking. Each turn a unit without sailing or flying remains in waters, up to 25% of the figures in the unit will drown, and their equipment may be lost. In some cases, this will allow the survivors to resume their trip on the remaining ships. For single figures units (such as the leader of the stack), this means a one chance out of four of the unit disappearing. [drowning is not implemented this way in alpha test]



Units may group together, forming “stacks”. A stack is a grouping of units under the commandment of an overall leader. Only leaders and heroes can lead a stack. Stacks can be recursively built, i.e. the leader of a stack can move into a stack beneath another leader, and so on.

Units in a stack can act and behave separately, without specific restrictions. However, a unit in a stack cannot issue a MOVE order. Attempting to MOVE will first cause the unit to leave the stack, then start moving. If the unit was leading a sub-stack, the sub-stack remains stacked under his authority.

If the leader of a stack issue a MOVE order, the entire stack will move as a single unit. During the move, all units in the stack will not process any day order since they are moving, regardless of the fact that they did not issue a move order. Units willing to stack, but not move, should issue the STAY order (see below), which will cause them to leave the stack if the stack starts to move.

During a move all units in a stack (including all units in substacks) add their weights and capacities to the overall stack, which behaves as a caravan. It represents underloaded units taking up the extra weight of overloaded units.

If, due to any reason, the leader of a stack disappears, all units are unstacked from that leader. If they are in a substack, they will stack under the overall leader instead. If they were in the main stack, they will arrive at the location as if they were at the position of the leader.



Each unit is composed of individuals of a specific race. The most common denominator is men. You have three differing types of men:

* Followers. Those are the basic troops, workers and similar other menial tasks. Follower are numerous, cheap to recruit and require low wages. They also suffer from some restrictions:

- A follower unit cannot use the “MOVE” order (nor MARCH). To move, it must  be in a stack, and the stack leader will order the move. If a follower unit knows the 1st level in scouting skill, it will be able to move. A  follower may still move in and out of (ENTER/LEAVE) structures, since this  is not considered a movement.
 - A follower unit cannot study beyond the 1st level in any non-combat skill, unless taught.
 - A follower unit cannot study beyond the 2nd level in any combat skill, unless taught.
 - A follower unit cannot study more than one basic skill. There is an exception: a unit may study one basic craft skill and the basic combat skill. If a unit knows two basic skills, it will not be allowed to study  beyond the 1st level in any skill, even if taught!

A follower unit can get combat experience and acquire the combat skill if  it participates in a battle. If the battle was not sufficient to provide the full experience required for 1st level, it may STUDY the combat skill to get the level, or choose to forget it. 

* Leaders. These are the experienced, unique characters that organize and lead your faction. Leaders are rarer than followers, cost more to recruit, and require an amount of wages double from followers. Their restrictions are less than followers:
 - A leader unit always consists of ONE character, no more and no less.  

- A leader unit cannot study beyond the 2nd level in any non-combat skill, unless taught.
 - A leader unit cannot study beyond the 3rd level in any combat skill, unless taught.
 - A leader unit cannot study beyond the 1st level in any magic skill, unless taught. A leader unit cannot study beyond the 2nd level, even if taught; it requires experience to progress further.

* Heroes. The most famous characters, leaders of high skill, charisma and the like. Heroes are event rarer than leaders, and require an amount of wages identical to leaders. Heroes are almost never recruited. Occasionally, a single hero will appear in the Recruit area in some structures or cities. If  not recruited that turn, the hero will vanish. This usually signals a mad scramble to hire the hero.

- Heroes units have all the characteristics of leader units.
 - A hero cannot study beyond the 4th level in any combat skill, unless taught.
 - A hero has an intrinsic bonus: +1 in initiative, +1 in observation and an intrinsic (small: 20 units) riding capacity that allows him to ride more efficiently than another unit.

From time to time, one of your leaders will prove itself to be a hero. This occurs after a battle. At the end of a battle, all leaders have a chance to become heroes equal to their combat, missile or initiative factor in %, whichever is greater.

You can demote a hero to the rank of simple leader, if and only if the hero has no combat skill levels at 4 or higher. If you want to demote a hero with 4th level, you must have him forget the skill first.

Apart from men, you may also own or encounter creature races. Creatures are not for recruitment. The various races encountered differ only in their intrinsic skills; they all obey the same generic rules.

- A creature unit cannot study. Gaining experience is the only way to alter its initial characteristics. This include using any of the starting skills, or involving a creature in battle.
- A creature unit’s allegiance is always to the faction of the stack leader (substack if in a substack). The creature will change its allegiance to the  stack leader it is under at the end of the month if ordered to change stacks.
- If not stacked at the end of the month, the creature unit reverts to the Creatures faction.

Control points.


Control points are limiting factors on your faction size. Your faction begins with 200 control points. Each of your units require a number of control points. Some factors will increase the number of control points available, or required.

Each unit requires 1 control point per fraction of 20 figures. Thus, a unit with only 1 figure will require 1 control point, a unit with 20 creatures will still require only 1 control point, but a unit with 21 followers will require 2 control points.

Hero units require one additional control point. Units with magical abilities also require one additional control point for each fraction of 4 maximum mana (thus, a hero with 7 magic skills would require 4 control points).

Titles add to the number of control points a faction has available. Some specific items (relics, symbols of power and authority) and structures are also rumored to add to control points to their owner’s faction.

The control factor is checked at the end of the 1st day of the month, after all immediate and full-day orders have been processed. If the faction requires less control points that its maximum, nothing happens.

If the faction needs more control points than it has, each unit will have a probability equal to the number of missing points (in %) to refuse to act during the month. If a unit refuses to act, it will not WORK or perform any default action, but will still move if it is part of a stack (note that the STAY order, if any, will not be executed). Furthermore, any unit that should enter battle may refuse with a probability equal to 5 times the number of missing points (in %), unless it was the target of the attack.

It is possible for a faction to stay over its maximum control points for a time, but this usually severely perturbs the faction’s activities, and make it more vulnerable.

Fate Points. (Fate points are not implemented in Alpha, nor scheduled for Beta)
There are two different fate points found within the game. There are individual fate points, and faction fate points. Your faction fate points are listed at the beginning of your report, and are in a pool similar to your faction fund; they can be used by any unit anywhere. Unlike funds, you do not need to be in a city to use these fate points. The individual fate points appear as 0-weight objects, like cash or mana. Unlike faction fate points, these can be freely given between characters.  
Individual fate points are earned by discovering specific locations, or defeating powerful monsters or hordes of enemies. Fate points for discoveries will be shown as stockpiles; you simply GET them after you found them. Fate points for battle are awarded as spoils. You never find more than one fate point at a time.
Faction fate points are awarded for specific deeds. At periodic intervals, factions that have had a significant achievement (such as being the first to use a specific skill, the first to reach a specific skill level, the first *or* last ranked in a specific category) will automatically earn one global fate point. It is also rumored that Christmas sees fate smiling on you.
Fate points may be used only by single-figure units, be it a follower, leader or creature. Individual fate points may be used only by the wielder, but any unit may use the faction fate points at any time. Other than that, there are no differences between both fate points.  

The world.


The world of Overlord is divided in locations. All locations have a unique identifier. Units always reside in one location; units without a location are dead, and not mentioned in the report anymore.

There are three different types of locations:

* Land locations. For ease of orientation, these locations form a hexagonal  net. Each land location has 6 neighbors, located respectively north, south, northeast and west and southeast and west. Usually, movement is possible to any of the adjacent lands. 
* Inner locations. These locations are always contained within another  location. Movement is always possible between the inner location and the
 containing location.
* Structures. These locations are always contained within another locations,  and behave like inner locations, with some exceptions:
 - Units in structures are visible to units in the containing location, as if  they were in the same location.
 - Units in structures and in the containing location can interact as if they  were in the same location.
 - The immediate orders ENTER and LEAVE can be used to move in and out of the  structure without spending a day in the movement.

There is an exception to this nice order: Special locations may be inner locations and have neighbors at the same time, and some “land” locations may have more complex and irregular geometries, such as the Maelstrom and the Underground Maze. 

o Population

Most locations, except some inner locations, have a local population.

Population changes from turn to turn. Birth and death occurs, causing the local population to change by a random factor of up to 2% each month. Other events affect the population:

* When you are recruiting, the number of recruits is subtracted from the local population.

* When you disband a unit, the number of figures is added to the local population.

All locations have an “optimal” number of people it can support. That optimal number is not known in great detail, but depends on the type of location, and the local factors:
* Buildings increase the containing location’s optima.
* Taxing decreases the optima.
* Pillaging a region decreases the optima a lot.

* Battle in a region decreases the optima a lot.
* Using the local market, if any, increases the optima.

When a population is above its optima, it will tend to emigrate to the adjacent locations. If the population is below its optima, it will tend to attract people from the surrounding locations, even if these surrounding locations are also below optima, unless the ratio of population over optimal number is lower. Population movements occur in inverse proportion of the time necessary to travel from one location to the other. Overpopulated location may suffer from famine, leading to significant population drop. Plagues will also significantly decrease population.Selling food on local market may prevent famine in the city.

The amount of population tends to drive the rest of the economy.

Land Ownership

As in real life in Overlord populated territories usually have some form of local powers. This may be legal power based on recognized feudal hierarchy. Otherwise it may be military occupation based on power of strength.

Location is legally owned if it falls into area of influence of some title (such as Sheriff, Lord or Baron). Legal owner may collect taxes from this lands. Legal owner may also declare local policy determining who can trade, recruit, harvest resources, pillage or just pass through location. (Working is considered private business and is not subject of regulation). No troops are needed for that - as long as local population recognizes owner,  taxes will be collected by elders and forbidden public actions prevented by a crowd. Legal owner may also pillage his lands in order to get more money but this will dramatically decrease population loyalty to titleholder and may cause uprising. 

Location may be occupied if significant military forces are present. Occupation forces  may not tax territory as they have no right for that but they may pillage money from population. Occupation forces may also restrict public actions (harvesting resources, buying, selling, recruiting, movement into location) according to their policy.
Taxes will be collected automatically by local tax collectors and added to funds of titleholder’s faction. If some location is pillaged all tax money stored there will be looted. 

Owner of the territory (occupant as well as legal owner) may set  policy defining what is permitted and what is not permitted on that territory. By default only allies of titleholder may pillage, at least friends may  trade, recruit and harvest and at least neutrals may pass. Anyone may work. Currently only default policy is implemented but in the future you will be able, for instance, to set explicit permissions, quotas or bans for trading or harvesting of specific goods or recruiting specific race on your territory.

Significant military forces
In order to occupy the land one needs at least some military forces able to deny resistance of local population.  These forces should be able to inflict combat damage (i.e. to have some weapons or posses martial arts). They should have one figure for each 50 men of local population but not less than 20 figures and no more than 50.

o Recruiting

In most of the locations with a local population, you will be presented with recruiting opportunities. The recruitment opportunities for the coming turn are shown in the report, and include followers, usually a leader or two, and from time to time a hero.

You may recruit on any day, by offering at least the indicated price per figure. The recruitment opportunities last until all figures are recruited, after which no more figures may be hired for the rest of the month. Thus, it is better to recruit early during the turn.

If more than the available number of figures are recruited on a specific day, the recruitment will follow market rules (see below), and the price go up.

If few figures are recruited during a turn, the price will tend to drop for the next turn, as figures try to become more attractive. Prices will never go below a specific minima.

o Market

A market’s presence is denoted by a market structure in a location. The richer the area, the more products will be offered or bought. The amount of taxes available is a good indicator of the richness. As demand is satisfied, or supply used, the amount of products and their prices will vary.

 Market occurs at the end of the day, after all the immediate and full-day orders have taken place. A buyer or seller must remain the entire day on location.

the market will sort for each item the buy requests in increasing order of price, and sell requests in decreasing order of price. The market will then select the price at which the maximum number of transactions will occur. A transaction is possible only if the buyer pays at least the amount requested by the seller. Once this price is fixed, all transactions for the item will occur at the fixed price. All buyers having fixed a lower price are eliminated, as are all sellers having fixed a higher price.

All transactions occur at the fixed price, but the buyer will always pay the price he has specified, and the seller will always receive the price he has set, no more.

o Cash opportunities

Uses for cash are more detailed in the section for cash. Cash opportunities arise only in locations that have a local population. In these, you will find the following values:

* Wages. This indicates the amount of cash paid for a full month of unskilled  work done using the WORK order.
* Taxes. This indicates the amount of taxes available locally. These are automatically  collected by the land owner.

These values tend to be related to the number of persons in the area. That number includes the local population and all the units present in the area. Increasing that number leads to an higher amount of work, entertainment and taxes, but usually reduces the level of the wages.


Most land locations have resources, i.e. items that can be directly produced out of the land, without requiring raw materials (see items below). The report lists the types of items that can be harvested, and the amount that can be harvested during the month. The types and amount will depend from the land geography. Thus, stones, minerals and the like are most likely to be found in mountains or hills, fishes near water, horses will roam plains and the like. The amount produced will vary from time to time, as seasons change, and existing resources are harvested.

Each turn, certain amount of the resources become available.  If it isn’t harvested before the end of the turn, it does not provide oversupply for the next turn. If more units try to harvest the resource during a day than are available the resource will be shared between all harvesters proportionally to their harvesting ability. So if there are 15 grains are available for harvesting and there are two units, first abele to harvest 20 grain per turn and the second 40, then first unit will get 5 grain and the second 10. 

o Climate

This is valid only for land locations. Climate is included in your report, and affects your units’ activities. Inner locations protect you from the effects climate, but the report mentions the climate of the containing location. The effects of the climate are:

* Winter (storm, rain, wind)
 - Units require double wages;
 - Air magics activities are increased by 10%;
 - Entertainment is increased by 50%.

* Spring (fair, sun, rain, wind)
 - Earth magics activities are increased by 10%;
 - Entertainment is increased by 25%.

* Summer (fair, sun)
 - Fire magics activities are increased by 10%;
 - All land productions increase by 30%.

* Autumn (fair, rain, wind, storm)
 - Water magics activities are increased by 10%;
 - Taxes are increased by 25%.

To this periodic, fixed effects are added climatic fluctuations, which affect the productivity and movement rates:

* Fair
 - No modifiers
* Sunny
 - Agricultural production increase by 10%.
* Rainy
 - Agricultural production increase by 10%;
 - Movement times is increased by 20% for walking and riding;
 - Movement times increase to 6 days for flying.
* Windy
 - Movement times increase to 5 days for flying;
 - Movement times is decreased by 25% for sailing.
* Storm
 - Void magic activities increase by 20%;
 - Agricultural production decreases by 20%;
 - Movement times is increased by 50% for walking and riding;
 - Movement times increase to 15 days for flying;
 - Movement times is decreased by 10% for sailing.

The fluctuations are specific to each territory, but influence each other. If a storm is affecting a location, the six neighbors will always be either subject at least to winds or rains, and possibly storm also.

The increase in magic activities apply to all magic activities in the related element. Skills are learned quicker; the speed of magical producing skills is also higher.

o Directions

From one location, there are usually many directions possible. Those directions are included in the report. A movement order (MOVE/MARCH) may specify either the direction name or the destination location identifier.  

o Building and Vessels

All locations may contain Structures that units may enter and leave. Stationary structures are called Buildings and structures that may move themselves are called Vessels. The most common example of vessels are ships.

The following rules apply to structure locations:

* Building and Vessels are transparent: units inside a Building or Vessels are  visible to the units in the containing location, and can see these, as if  they were in the location itself. Units can also interact between the structure and containing location (providing teaching, giving items and figures).
* Movement is possible only between the structure and the containing  location, using the ENTER/LEAVE order.
* You cannot build a structure inside a structure.

Structures are built using the USE/TARGET system. A unit willing to work on a structure selects which structure it wants to work on using the TARGET order. If the structure is already begun, then “TARGET structure-id” works; the unit may then contribute to the structure. The builder need not to be in the structure to help building it. If the structure is not yet begun, the “TARGET structure-tag” must be used to specify which type of structure should be built. All structures require a number of stone, wood, or other materials to be fitted before the structure is completed. USE of the appropriate building skill will consume the element, and further the construction, in the same manner as the production of other items. 
You cannot enter a structure until it is complete.

Each structure has some special advantages that it confers on the containing region or the units inside.

* Many structures will provide skill teaching. They allow any unit inside to learn the appropriate skill, at a faster rate, and up to a level that might be greater than would normally allowed.

* Production structures may give bonus to production speed to unit inside it.

* Military structures provide additional statistic points to units inside.  Typically, all units in a military structure suffer from a -1 penalty to  their initiative, and +3 to their defense, but some military structures  provide different bonus.

Structure may be owned by faction. Units of owning faction need not to be present inside of the structure in order to preserve ownership rights. The structure is assumed to be GUARDed thus, a structure owner will prevent unfriendly factions from entering. Strealty units sometimes still may enter into building without owner’s permission stealth stat of entering unit is exceeds by 4 best owner’s observation at location. 

When you start a new structure, you must have a unit specify a structure tag as the target. If multiple units specify the same structure tag, they will all contribute to the same building. You cannot build structures on water.

The following requirements apply to building the structure. All craft levels allow a builder to use one unit of material and work 10 days to further the construction.














90 iron 10 keystone





300 iron

















50 iron


Guard Tower



10 iron






Magic guild



10 keystone, 1 magekey

















100 iron

(*) denotes a military building, so the amount of stone required is divided  between fortifications and stonework.

Keystones are stones reworked by very skilled diggers. The Magekey is produced by a skill requiring 2nd magecraft. Other buildings are described when you master the skill that produce them.

Each type of building provides the following benefits:




Dedicated to combat skills studies


Baron title

+2 to defense,

+1 to missile


Population center


Lord title

+1 to defense,

+1 to missile


Reduce by 33% the time required to build ships


Provide an additional 50% fish


Provide an additional 50% live products

Guard Tower

Sheriff title

+3 to defense,

-1 to initiative


Dedicated to craft skills studies

Magic Guild

Dedicated to magic skills studies


create Sell/Buy


Provide an additional 50% digging


City, Villages, and Castles are the only inner locations that you can build. Once completed, they will have a population of zero, but will tend to attract people from around, so the population will grow over time, providing an additional tax, work and entertainment base. You cannot recruit in Castles, but you can in cities and villages. 
The +2 defense for castles apply only to battles involving a unit  defending against units trying to enter the castle. If the battle occurs within the castle itself, no benefits are awarded to any side.
[not implemented in alpha test]

Fisheries, farms and mines are all production buildings. Such a production building provide an additional 50% resource outcome for units staying inside the building. Fisheries add 50% fishes, farms add 50% to live products (grains, herbs, animals), and mines to anything that you can extract from earth (stone, metals). The resources provided by these building are harvested first, then any resource from the normal land.



Money are materialized in by the coin item. For simplicity’s sake, the ‘$’ symbol is used to denote coins in wages, markets, and other financial transactions.

o Upkeep

All figures in a unit require a monthly upkeep under the form of wages. Upkeep occurs at the end of the month. If the wages are not paid, the unit will acquire a dissent effect, which will be duplicated in any unit that receives a figure from the dissenting unit. If the wages are not paid for a second time, the unit will desert, mingling back into the local population.

Upkeep is summarized in the report. Typically, leaders require an upkeep of $20 per month, while followers require only $10. Creatures may have variable upkeeps. Upkeep is required at the end of the month, regardless of the number of days the figure spent in the unit (recruiting people on day 30 is counter-productive), but before the unit switches allegiance.

Upkeep money is used, in order:

* From the unit’s cash. 

* From any unit in your faction present in the same location that still has
 cash after paying its own upkeep, in order of arrival in the location.
* From your faction’s unclaimed funds.

Upkeep can also be paid from food rations. If a unit owns food rations and equip them, each figure thus equipped will use one food ration as the basic upkeep (80% of upkeep price), and will require $2 as upkeep ($4 for leaders). If food rations remain, the food will remain equipped, and used on the next turn. Thus, you can equip 20 men in a 30 figure unit, and 20 men will use food for upkeep, while the other 10 will pay.

Cattle, fishes, and uncooked grain can also be used as a source of food in case of emergency.[not implemented in alpha test]

o Earning money

There are four basic ways of earning money. The first is to issue the WORK order, which is also the default (i.e., all your orders lists end up with an invisible WORK). All units issuing the WORK get a proportionate amount of cash to the number of work days and the amount of the wages. Work is converted into cash at the end of the month. If the unit issuing the work order leaves the area, all wages are lost. Wages are usually only a little bit higher than upkeep.

The second is to sell your goods on the market. Each city requires a lot of goods (mainly food), so producing food and selling it on the market may earn a faction very good money.

The third is to collect taxes.  Taxes are automatically collected by owner of the land unless the land is occupied. In order to own land one should claim title.

The last is to pillage the area, using the PILLAGE order. Pillaging is equivalent to harvesting tax money.

Units on GUARD  will attack a pillaging unit, unless you are an ally. If a battle occurs for that reason, all guards s (and their allies) will be on the attacking side, and all pillaging units (and their allies) will be on the defending side. A unit needs at least 1st combat to issue the PILLAGE order, and PILLAGE works only if the pillaging unit has at least 50 figures [in alpha this is reduced to 20], wielding weapons (or able to do damage with hands by possessing the Martial Arts skill). Otherwise, the PILLAGE has no effect. 

Pillage causes harm to the area. People will emigrate, agricultural production will drop, market and recruitment opportunities will dry up.
[not implemented in alpha test]



Skills are special abilities that a unit can have, and that serves to distinguish between otherwise identical units. Each unit may have one or more skills. There is no limit to the number of skills a unit may acquire, but studying of skills may be subject to some specific restrictions.

o Studying skill

A skill may be studied using the “STUDY tag [level]” command. That orders the unit to spend some time studying the skill, up to the specified (optional) level. Each day of study costs a certain amount and adds to the experience level of the unit. The amount referenced is per figure (thus, a 50-men unit will spent $50/day if studying combat).

Once begun, studies may be interrupted at any time and continued afterwards.

o Skills trees

There are three different categories of skills:

* Basic skills can be learned at any time.
* Advanced skills can be learned only if the unit already knows a specific  skill.
* Intrinsic skills (talents) cannot be learned, ever.

Each basic skill can be considered the “root” of a “skill tree”. From that basic tree can be gained additional skills, which open access to other, more advanced skills and so on.

o Skills limitations

There are some specific limitations on skills, that will prevent units from studying such a skill (i.e. the study order will fail). The talents are not discussed here, as the “STUDY talent” command automatically fails.

Some skills are “leader-only”. Only a leader may study these skills. This usually applies to basic skills, but some advanced skills in skill trees might be available only to leader units (leaders and heroes).

Some skills are “specialist” skills. A unit cannot study the skill unless it has an outside help. Such a help is a unit already mastering the skill that uses the “TEACH unit skill” order to guide the unit, or the presence of the unit in a structure that offers teaching in the specialist skill. Merely being in a stack with a leader having the skill is not enough to enable studying it.

Follower units can only learn one basic skill (thus using only one skill tree).  Note that merging followers from a unit with a different basic skill into a unit that already has a basic skill will cause these followers to forget the basic skill before the merge.

Some skills are racial (i.e. they may be studied only by specific race) and others may require a specific item for studying.

Creatures cannot study skills, ever (the STUDY order itself is forbidden).

o Skill limits

Follower units are limited to studying the 1st level in all skills, or up to the 2nd level in all combat skills (denoted in the skill reports). 

Leaders are limited to studying the 2nd level in all skills, or up to the 3rd level in all combat skills, but can only study to the 1st level in any magic skill.

Heroes are limited to studying to the 4th level in all combat skills.

Note that, if a teacher of the appropriate level is available, a unit will be able to study under the teaching of the leader over its normal limits. Thus, a leader can teach a  unit the 2nd level in a craft skill, or even the 3rd level if the teacher has reached the limit, but only at the normal learning speed.

There are some items that may raise studying limits of units. 

o Getting experience

There are basically three ways of getting additional experience in a skill. Studying an advanced skill adds 10% of the experience gained by the advanced study to all the more basic skills. Thus, learning cavalry maneuvers for 10 days will add 1 day experience to the maneuvers skill, and 1 day experience to the basic combat skill.

The second way of getting experience is by using the skill, with the “USE tag” command. A unit USING a skill to produce items or anything else will also gain the equivalent of 10% days of study to the skill and 5% to all of its more basic skills for each day spent using the skill.

Finally, a unit may also gain experience many combat skills by participating in battle. For each battle round, the unit gains the equivalent of 1 day of combat skill study. It will also gains an additional day in the melee skill if it strikes (using the MELEE combat setting), or one day in the parry skill if it parries (using the PARRY combat setting). If the unit had no combat skill yet (novice combat or none), it will gain two days of study per round, plus bonus. If the unit had no parry skill at all (not even novice), it doesn’t gain the experience. If the unit had no melee skill at all, it will begin to gain some, but only if it has at least the 1st combat required by the melee skill.

If the unit uses an item in combat, or a combat skill, it will gain one day of study in the combat skill, or the skill that allows the unit to equip the relevant item.

The skill benefits thus gained are added at the end of the battle. Veterans are always better at war than novices, provided they survive the winnowing of war.

o Faster studies

There are three ways of getting faster courses while studying.

A unit in a stack gets the benefits of the skills level from all its leaders (i.e. its substack leader, the leader of the bigger stack, and so on up to the  leader of the overall stack). If any of the leaders knows the skill being learned at a level higher than that of the unit, the unit gets a 10% bonus to study. Thus, assuming that learning a 1st level specific skill would take 20 days, if the leader of the stack already has 1st level, the study would take only about 18 days.

A unit in a structure or location that provides skill teaching gets also a 20% bonus to study for that skill, up to the level taught in the location, and all the basic skills required by it, again up to the levels required for the acquisition of the skill.

Finally, a leader may use the command “TEACH id tag” to teach a specific skill to a unit. Teaching may be done for any number of units, and doubles the speed of learning for 50 figures in these units. If the unit has more than 50 followers, this bonus will be proportionally decreased.  When teaching leaders, each leader is counted as 10 followers.  [this decreasing is not implemented in alpha]

These three methods can be cumulative. Thus, a unit that is following a leader in the appropriate structure and taught the skill at the same time would study at 260% of normal speed.

o Merging units

Usually, when merging two units of followers (or creatures), the resulting unit has an experience that is proportionate to each unit’s initial skill. For example, it takes three times as much experience to get the 2nd level in combat skill than the 1st level. If you merge a unit of 10 2nd-level men with a unit of 20 men without combat experience, you will end up with a 1st-level combat unit.

No experience points are ever lost when a unit is split or recombines. However, when mixing two units with differing basic skills, the following may occur:

* If the resulting unit would know one basic skill  normal merge occurs (which may lead to the unit becoming novice in both skills).

* If the resulting unit would know two basic skills, then the unit doing the merge forgets its basic skill and all the skills depending on it, leaving only the initial skill of the unit receiving additional figures. 

A follower unit can only have one basic skill. 

o Use of skills

Most of the skills are activated by the USE command. USE is a full-day command and will:

* Harvest an item out of the land, if the location provides that resource.  The skill description indicates how long a figure using the skill takes to extract the item from the land. Multiple figures combines their skills and extract items faster. If one figure requires 10 days to harvest some items, a unit of 10 figures will harvest one each day.

USE of an harvesting skill can be prohibited by a faction owning location, if the faction does not declare you friendly.

It is possible to start to harvest an item, then execute another order, and then continue using the harvesting skill without penalty. However, trying to move will simply cancel any incomplete production.

* Produce an item out of one or more raw materials (items) available. This is an activity similar to harvesting items, except that it does not require the location to provide the item. As in harvesting skills, multiple figures can combine their skills to produce items faster.

When producing an item, the items required for production are consumed as soon as production starts, in their totality. If the required items and quantities are not in the possession of the unit, the USE command is impossible and skipped, or, if production was already advanced that day, the remaining idle figures will do nothing on that day. Once production has begun, it must be completed to have the resulting item come in the unit’s possession. As in harvesting, work in progress can be stopped and resumed later, but moving will cause the item’s production to be lost, without recovery of the original materials.

* Produce an effect (magical skills). This activity usually produces an effect on a location, unit or on the casting unit itself. Other than that, it does not differ much from item production, consuming mana, raw materials, and  producing items, effects or other events.

* Building. Using building skills produce a new building or ship or contribute into construction of unfinished building or ship. Building skills consume raw materials.

* Summoning. Summoning skills produce new unit.  Other than that, it does  not differ much from item production, consuming (possibly)  mana and raw materials.



Magic is a specific skill tree. The base skill is Magecraft [mage]. It takes 30 days to study the 1st level of Magecraft.

All skills derived from Magecraft are said to be magic skills, and reported as thus in the skill report. All magic skills that can be studied can be learned up to level 1 unaided. All magic skills can be taught up to level 2 by a mage that already has the 2nd level. Only experience can bring a mage above level 2 in a spell. Some mage guilds will also teach some spells at higher levels. 

The Magecraft skill opens access to five basic elemental skills, Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Void. Only one elemental skill may be learned per level of Magecraft, so an unaided, beginner mage must specialize in one skill. Advanced mages may learn a second element, and really experienced mages may learn a third one. It is rumored that the Emperor’s advisor is exceptionally gifted in magecraft and began its career as a 5th level Mage.

The five elemental skills are related to the following areas:  

Air: Movement, creatures and observation

Earth: Nature, production and resources

Fire: Battle and alterations

Void: Knowledge, magic itself, and death

Water: Healing and production

But, notably at higher levels, spells in one element can be related to spells from other elements and affect areas traditionally reserved to other elements. (thus, some Earth magics can be used in battle, for example).

From each of the elemental skills open up a variety of magic skills, or spells. Spells are divided in two broad categories:

* Basic spells can be studied by the mage on its own. These are the most common spells, easily mastered.
* Specialist spells cannot be studied by the mage, unless that mage has a teacher for the spell, or the spell is taught by the local mages’ guild. If this happens, the advanced spell will automatically be included in the available skills section of the unit’s report. Spells taught by another mage never appear, since this is conditional to the teacher’s orders.

There are also two types of spells:

* World spells are used during the normal day, and behave in a similar way to mundane skills.
* Combat spells are used during the battle. When setting your tactics for combat, you may specify a spell. When specifying one or more spells, those spells will be used during combat. See the rules on combat for a more detailed explanation.

There are a few special magical skills that are not dependent on elements. Those skills are available to any mage skilled in magecraft, and do not need an elemental skill to be learned first. All magic skills are also normal skills, and subject to the general rules about magic skills.

A special characteristic is also available to mages, and only to them. The mana is a quantity that represents the amount of magical power available to a mage. A mage has a maximum amount of mana it can have, which is simply equal to the sum of all skill levels in magical areas. Thus, a mage with 1st Magecraft, 1st Earth magics, 1st Meditate and 1st Fertility has a maximum amount of 4 mana available. All spells require an amount of mana to produce their effect, in addition to spells components. Mana spent that way is regained at the rate of 1 mana every two days (so, you get back one mana at end of day 2, at end of day 4 and so on). You also regain mana during a battle, at the faster rate of 1 mana every battle turn, as the concentration of forces around and mindless energy increase the magical energies available.

There is a special generic spell, Meditate, that does not use mana, but produces mana instead, and can be used to regain mana faster. Meditate uses one unit of magical herbs to produce one mana per level in Meditate. This happens in addition to mana regained, so the net effect is very fast. Meditate can also be used to increase your mana total above what you normally can use. If you are above your total, then you lose one mana every two days instead of gaining one (but you don’t lose mana each turn during a battle), if you’re less than 50% above your limit, one mana every day if you’re less than 100% above, three per two days up to 150%, and so on.

Buildings specific to magic are mage towers. There are two differing levels of towers for magecraft:
* Mage guilds. Mage guilds are headed by a wizard, and sometime offer specialized teachings in one element, and one or two specific skills. The title of Head of Guild is a minor title, associated with the Magecraft skill, and is automatically lost if the wizard leaves the guild.
* Magic towers. There are five magic towers, one for each element, and they are headed by one of the best wizards in that element. The title of Master is a major title associated with the appropriate elemental skill. A challenger may succeed with a 20% lower skill if the Master is not present in the tower at the time of the challenge.

Some non-combat skills require a target for their effect. This target is either automatic (the skill-using unit itself, the current location) or must be specified prior to using the skill. The TARGET order can specify a unit or location that will serve as the target of the skill. An appropriate target must be selected prior to using the skill; if no valid targets are selected, the skill cannot be used at all. Switching targets in the middle of a casting is possible, but negates 50% of the time spent casting, and require the mana and materials required for the spell to be spent again. If a casting is interrupted, the effect is spoiled.



Another distinguishing feature between units is their possessions, or items. Each item has a separate use, ranging from trade goods to badges of authority, including weapons, tools and raw materials.

Items have various characteristics:

* The item’s weight (in arbitrary units). This weight is added to the weight of the unit (and thus the stack).

* The item’s visibility (on reports). Items that weight zero units are considered too small and are not visible on the report, except for their own faction. All other items are visible to any faction that can see the unit.

* The item’s equipment. Some items may be equipped by a unit, to add to the unit’s capacities. These items have several restrictions on their use:
 - An equipment limit. The limit indicates how many items each figure in the  unit can equip. If you have a limit of 1, it means that you can equip only  one item per figure. 
 - The equipment category further restricts the possibility of equipment. The limit above applies to all items in the same equipment category. Thus if you can equip one weapon per figure, have 20 figures, 15 swords and 15 war hammers, you’ll be able to equip any combination of swords and hammers totaling 20 (15 swords and 5 hammer, 10 and 10 or anything else) or less.  

- An equipment skill requirement. Only units having the required skill and  level are able to equip the item. In the example above, if the unit does not know the bladed weapons skill, it will be unable to equip any sword.
 - An equipment effect. Most of the equipped items affect the unit’s vital characteristics. They do so in proportion of the equipped figures. For example, if a horse provides a +3 bonus in initiative, but there are only 10 horses equipped in a 30-man unit, the unit will have only 1 added to its  initiative rating. The proportion is rounded down; an equipment providing  a +1 or -1 modifier will produce the modifier only if all the figures have the appropriate equipment.

* The item’s capacities. Some items have capacities, meaning that their possession increase the unit’s weight-carrying capacity for one or more travel modes. A sample of this is boats: Boats are items with a large weight, but an even larger carrying capacity for sailing purposes. Some capacities are different when you equip the item. For example, unequipped  horses have a lower capacity, which represents in fact the difficulties in leading a horse without a rider. Similarly, boats have no sailing capacity until they are equipped.

A unit may have any number of items of the same type. Out of this amount, the unit may also equip any number of items (subject to equipment restrictions) up to the number of items owned.

o Production

Almost all items, except special items and unique items, are produced using a skill. The section on the world covered harvesting of items directly from the land.

Producing refined products requires the appropriate skill. For example, the following skill description shows how battle axes are produced:

1st make axes [mkax]. Requires 1st weaponsmith [weap]. Requires 30 days to
 study and $1/day. Use consumes: 1 wood [wood], 3 iron [iron], produces: 1
 war axe [waxe] in 30 days.

A unit may thus use the skill to produce one war axe for every wood and three pieces of iron. The more figures in the unit, the faster production goes. If you have thirty people working on the war axe skill, you can produce one axe a day. As soon as production of an item begins, the consumed items are removed from the unit’s inventory. After completion of the required man-days of work, the war axe appears.

As in harvest skills, you can stop producing the item for a while, then resume work where you left, unless the unit moves in the meantime. If the unit moves for whatever reason, the work invested and materials are lost.

Advance in the skill allows the unit to make items faster. Usually, if an item takes X days to produce at 1st skill level, it will take X/2 days at 2nd, X/3 days at 3rd and so on. If this is not stated otherwise the required materials remain the same for each item; you cannot make two axes out of one wood and three irons at second level.  

o Special item

There are some special items, used through the game: 
* Coins [coin]. This is the monetary unit in the game. The coins are accepted  everywhere and anywhere, for all transactions.


Enchantments are effects that may be placed on units, constructions or locations.  They modify properties of enchanted object for some duration. After that it expires and disappears.  These enchantments represent some event affecting the unit. They cannot be handed off to another unit like items, and if the unit with an enchantment on it is MERGEd with another unit, or receives figures from another unit, enchantment will be diluted i.e. it’s remaining duration will decrease. The unit can still be split; each resulting unit keeping the full effect. The amount of the effect item represents the number of days remaining for the effect. An amount of 100,000 represents an essentially infinite duration. At the end of each day, the amount of all effect days decreases by one.  



Overlord implements a system of titles or deeds granted to individuals. All titles are attached to a location, and each location can have only one title associated with it. Titles give special abilities to those holding them. A unit may hold only one title at a time.

Each title has requirements:

- A cost, representing the deed.
- A skill and level required for claiming the title.

Only leading units (leaders and heroes) may attempt to claim a title. You may attempt to claim any title, even if the title is already held by another unit. You do so with the CLAIM order, which is a one-day order. When CLAIMing, you must have the required skill and level mentioned in the title description, and will always pay the specified amount.

If the title is unclaimed, the leader then receives the title. The title’s owner and the owning faction are always mentioned in the location’s description, even if the holding unit has not chosen to advertise its faction.

If the title is already claimed, a challenge occurs. The challenge is judged upon the skill required for the title. Usually, the challenger needs 10% more experience than the challengee. If the challenger has more skill experience points than the required amount, the challenge is successful, and the title is transferred to the challenger. In all cases, half of the amount paid for the title is given to the challengee. 

If the challengee is not present at the time of the challenge, the challenger can, by default, claim the title as long as he has 90% of the skill points of the challengee, unless otherwise stipulated in the title description. 

A challengee always receives a notification of the challenge, and the % of skill requirement from the challenger. Similarly, a challenge is a good way to measure a title holder’s abilities, as the relative % of the experience will be included in the report.

If title holders are slain in battle, their title will be lost 50% of the time. In the other case, one untitled leader on the same side (if winner, or if there are no losers) or of the winning side that can claim the title will receive the title. If multiple leaders could claim the title, one will receive it at random. No taxes are paid for these conquered titles.

There are four different levels of titles:

- Minor titles. Those titles require fairly low levels in skills, and provide an additional +5 control points for the faction.
- Standard titles. Those titles require good levels in basic skills, or advanced skills and provide an additional +10 control points for the faction,  thus making it cost-effective to train a leader specifically for the task of  getting the title.
- Major titles. Those titles require very high levels in basic skills or high levels in special skills, and provide an additional +20 control points for the faction, making these even more attractive.
- The Overlord title. This is a unique title. You cannot CLAIM the title of  Overlord unless it is vacant. If you do so, you will gain +50 control points  for your faction, and you will be declared ALLY by the two factions Imperials and Citizens. If your faction loses the title of Overlord, it will be declared ENEMY by the two factions above. The title of Overlord is claimed in battle by the leader with the highest combat experience, but only if the level of the leader in combat skill is 5th or greater!

The following titles are available:

o Land grants

o Magic masters



When combat occurs between two sides, it is basically divided in three phases, called engagement, battle, and retreat.

o Engagement

The engagement begins when one of the sides attacks the other. The attack may be explicit, by the ATTACK order, or it may be automatic, for example when a faction is declared ENEMY or a unit tries to GUARD an area with a hostile faction. When this occurs, the following occurs:

1. The faction that caused the attack comes to the attacking side. This is the
 faction that gave the ATTACK order, the faction that has declared the other
 faction ENEMY, or the faction that used MARCH to enter a guarded area. If
 two factions have declared the other enemy, the oldest faction in the area
 is being attacked by the more recent comer.
2. The faction that was the target of the attack sides comes to the defending
3. All factions that were declared “on guard” in the area side with the
 defending side if they consider the faction attacked at least friendly.
4. Then all factions that have declared as ally of one of the involved factions
 side with the appropriate category. Note that this does not occur
 recursively; you will not join an ally of your ally, unless you have
 declared that faction ally yourself.
5. If a faction, except for the factions considered in 1 and 2, finds itself
 on both sides of the battle, it will withdraw from the fight. This means
 that an ATTACK on an ally is allowed, but you’ll never participate to an
 attack on an ally by a third party.

This determines first which factions are involved in the battle. All other
factions having units in the area of the battle, or passing thru the area, will
be simple spectators: they will receive a partial battle report, but will not
be involved.

Then, units are pulled in battle. All units that do not have a stance of AVOID
and belong to the warring factions will be included in the battle. Note that
the unit that started the attack, and the attacked unit are always included in
the battle, even if they have a stance of AVOID or DEFEND.

Also, units with a stance of DEFEND will not participate in an attack on the
attacking side. That stance has no effect if the faction is on the defending

If a unit involved in battle leads a stack, all the stack will be involved in
the battle (subject to AVOID/DEFEND settings), even if the faction of a unit in
the stack was not considered concerned by the battle. Note that other units of
the same faction will not participate in the battle, even if they do not have
an AVOID setting; the battle involves only the participating unit. Again, if
the faction finds itself with units on both sides of the battle, these units
will withdraw from the whole mess.

o Battle advantages

Once the forces in presence are determined, the armies are then compared.
There are two important factors considered: The ambush advantage and tactical
advantage. Ambush advantage promotes disorder in the opposing lines, as you
surprise the opposing forces. Tactic advantage provide better maneuvers during
the first turns of the battle.

The ambush level of each army is equal to the sum of the average stealth factor
and the ambush skill level of the entire army, plus any special bonus. The
average stealth factor is computed in proportion of each unit size, so a 20-men
unit of stealth-0 and a 10-men unit of stealth-3 yield an average of one point
for ambush level. The stealth average is rounded down, so even a 0.99 average
produces an effective zero points. The ambush skill is computed as if all
units were merged into one very large unit. Each unit that was executing a
GUARD command on the defending side has a bonus of 1 ambush skill
level, and the average observation factor of the defending army, computed in
a manner similar to the stealth factor, is also added..

If the defending army has a higher ambush level, and the battle was not caused
by an ATTACK command, the roles of attacking and defending sides are reversed,
and the ambush levels halved. The GUARD bonus and observation factor
for defending units no longer apply in that case, but the observation factor of
the now defending army kicks in.

If the attacking army has a higher ambush level, it has an ambush advantage
equal to the difference between its level and the defender’s ambush level.

For each level of in ambush advantage, each defending unit will randomly shift
one position in the battlefield. Thus, an ambush advantage of 1 means that
units will randomly shift their file, an ambush advantage of 2 means that units
will randomly shift one position in file and rank, 3 means that they can be
located on any file at random and 4 will mean that they can also be located on
any rank. Any ambush advantage is also added to the attacker’s tactics
advantage for the battle.
[ambush bonuses are not implemented in Alpha test]
The tactical level of each army is then computed. The tactic level is the
level of the highest tactician unit in the battle, plus the ambush advantage
for the army that ambushed the other. The army with the highest tactic level
will have the tactical advantage: the difference between its tactic level and
the other army’s tactic level will be added to all units’ initiative for the
first round. Each subsequent round will see the tactical advantage reduced by
one, until it reaches zero.

Finally, the engagement phase concludes with all armies placing themselves on
the battlefield. Each unit can locate itself on one of three ranks and one of
three files. A unit can declare itself on FRONT, CENTER, or REAR ranks, and
in LEFT flank, MIDDLE or RIGHT flank. Thus, the battlefield is divided in an
18-square rectangular area.

o Battle

The battle begins next. Battle consists on a series of rounds. Each unit will execute one action during each round, but might repeat this action multiple times under some special circumstances.

Each round follows the same format. First, all units check which order they
might execute. Depending on their tactical setting, differing orders might be
possible. Each order has an initiative bonus or malus associated with it, so
each unit ends up with a list of possible actions, with the appropriate
initiative rating. The initiative rating of the each action possible is used
as a cap on initiative rating: all the following initiative rating are always
equal or less than the cap rating.

The round then begins by activating all the units with the highest initiative
order value. First, the units determine if they have to move. This is done
using their movement tactical setting, which might be one of:

* FLEE: The unit tries to move to the rear rank on its side. Once at the rear
 rank, it will try to move to the flank that is less exposed to opposing
 forces. If the unit manages to stay three rounds at the rear rank without
 having to move or to face a melee attack, the unit flees the battlefield, and
 is removed from the battle. /*If the unit’s side loses the battle, the unit
 will have a 10% chance per round since it departed to avoid the retreat round
 (see below).*/
* RETREAT: Essentially the same setting as FLEE, but the unit does not desert
 the battle. It is the movement setting of choice for most mages.
* STAND: The unit will not move at all, until destroyed.
* ADVANCE: The unit will advance to the square in front of it if it contains
 no opposing units. If multiple units have the same initiative, and want to
 advance to the same square, one will be chosen at random to advance first,
 then all the units on the same side. A unit that has all figures equipped
 with a mount has a double chance of moving first.
* SWEEP: Essentially the same setting as ADVANCE, except that the unit will
 not move if there is an opposing unit on the same rank and in an adjacent
* FLANK: Essentially the same setting as SWEEP, except if there is an opposing
 unit on the same rank, but on a different file. If there is such an unit on
 an opposing flank, the FLANK unit will try to move to the center, then move
 back to its flank setting once all opposing units on the same rank are
* CHARGE: The unit will advance toward the nearest opposing unit.
* FIRE: Essentially the same setting as ADVANCE, but the unit will not try to
 advance unless there are no units for two squares, leaving at least one
 square between itself and the nearest opposing unit.
* SUPPORT: Essentially the same setting as FIRE, but the unit will also retreat
 if an opposing unit is present on an adjacent square.

Once all the units at this initiative level have moved, they execute, if
possible, the order for the round. If the first order possible cannot be
executed, it will be skipped, and the next order considered. If that order has
a lesser initiative rating, the unit stops executing this order, and will be
considered again at the new initiative rating. However, the unit will not move
again; a unit only moves according to its first initiative rating.

The possible orders are specified in the COMBAT orders setting, and may
include one or more of the following:

* PARRY: The unit does not attempt to attack, and adds its attack rating to its
 defense rating for the rest of the round. PARRY has a +2 initiative bonus.
* MELEE: The unit attacks hand to hand one of the opposing units in an
 adjacent square. If there are opposing units on the same file, those units
 will be engaged. If not, opposing units on the same rank will be engaged.
 If not, the order is skipped.
* RANGED: The unit attacks with ranged weapon or spell one of the opposing

  units that are not  in an adjacent square. If there are opposing units in an adjacent

 square order is skipped.
* RELOAD: Some missile weapons require a reload time and fire only once every
 N round. After the weapon has fired, the combat tactical setting is replaced
 by the RELOAD setting for the appropriate number of turns. RELOAD performs
 no attack, and has a -1 initiative penalty.
[RELOAD is not implemented in Alpha]
* skill tag: The unit attempts to use the indicated skill, if there is a valid
 target within range, and the unit has the required components or equipment
 for the effect. If the skill cannot be used, it is skipped.
 If the skill is magic (a spell), and if it was attempted, it is removed from
 the combat tactical setting, thus avoiding the casting of the same spell over
 and over again. Once no spells can be attempted on the combat list, the
 original combat list is restored anew, and the list examined again once.
* item tag: The unit attempts to use the indicated item, if there is a valid
 target within range.

At the end of each combat tactical setting is the following implicit list:

Some units have a “hits” ratio greater than one. For such units, the MELEE
order, if executed, automatically reschedules a new default combat list (MELEE
then /PARRY) at a -1 initiative penalty over its original initiative. This
rescheduling occurs for “hits” time, with -1 added after each MELEE order,
allowing the same unit to strikes multiple times, on multiple units.

o Melee

During melee, each attacking figure chooses a target. The target is another
figure in a unit in range of the attack (for melee, that means an adjacent
square). If possible, attacking figures will try to choose a different figure
each. If the defending units have different stealth stats, the figures will be
chosen in the unit with the lowest stat, then the next highest stealth, and so
on. A unit with a stealth higher than the attacking unit’s observation has a
10% chance for each level of difference to avoid being attacked at all.

The target units with the same stealth level will also be considered with front units first, then flank units, then rear units, if any. For ranged attacks from several units at the same direction the nearest one will be selected.

Once the target is selected, the figure strikes 40% of the time, plus 4% per melee stat. If the figure strikes, the combat factor is compared to the defense factor. Both factors are reduced until the lowest is 1 or less, and the result gives the odd of a successful hit. Some examples:

* Attacking is 6, defender is 4. The result is 3 against 1 chances to hit, or  75% chance of inflicting a hit.
* Attacking is 2, defender is 7. The result is 1 against 6 chances to hit, or  only 16%.
* Attacking is 2, defender is 0. The result is always a hit (2 against 0).
* Attacking is 0. The defender is never hit.

Note that the PARRY bonus will apply only if the defending unit had time to PARRY, not if it had yet to get the initiative.

If an attacking or defending factor is lower than zero, it is treated as zero. 
If the target’s defense was higher than the attack, the attacker has 50% chance plus 5% per base (without equipment bonus) combat stat to strike a deadly blow. If the blow is deadly, the target loses one life point. If the blow is not deadly, the target will be wounded. Once wounded, all other hits are deadly. At the end of the battle, the figure will have a chance of healing, or lose one additional life point, and maybe die. If the attack stat was higher than the defense, the blow is always deadly. For units that inflict more than one wound per hit, the last blow inflicted might be a wound; all others are deadly. All blows are either inflicted, or none; a unit with 3 damage either inflicts three hits or zero, never one or two on a figure.

Unless the target figure has more than one life point, the figure dies from the wounds inflicted. If the target figure has more than one life point, it may suffer that many deadly blows before dying. If it was wounded, then hit, it might thus survive to fight another day.

o Non-melee attacks

Non-melee attacks usually follow the same rules as melee attacks. Missile attacks, for example, have an effective attack equal to the missile stat of the unit, which is shown if non zero, against an effective defense equal to one third of the defense of the unit, rounded down.

A missile attack can target units at range but can’t target adjacent units. Distance is counted by rank and file, a square in diagonal is thus at a distance of two.

Most special attacks follow either the melee rules, or the missile rules, with a type of hit added. Some spells and items provide extra protection against that type of hit, or make a hit of that type. Fire damage is common, for example. 

o Spells in combat

As explained above, some skills (spells) may be used in combat. To use them, set your combat actions to include your spell/skill. If the skill is a magical spell, it is removed from the action list, until no spells may be used. If the skill is non-magical, it will remain in the action list from turn to turn. 

Combat skills are marked as thus in the knowledge reports. Here is a sample combat spell:

1st strength of the boar [sboa]. This spell gives the user the strength of the
 boar in combat. Requires 15 days and $3/day to study. Requires 1st earth
 magics [eart] to learn. Use consumes: 2 mana [mana]. This is a magic skill.
 This is a combat action. Initiative: +1. Target: opposing unit. Range: melee.
 Effect: melee attack with modifiers +3 hits, +1 life, +4 melee, +4 defense.

The note “This is a combat action” indicates that the tag “sboa” is a valid setting in the combat actions list. To be considered, the skill requires the mage to have at least two mana (so, if the mage starts the battle without any, it will first get back the mana, then starts spending two and regaining one per round) and an appropriate target for a melee attack. If those conditions are fulfilled, the mage will have a MELEE, with 4 hits (or more), a bonus of 4 to his attack and defense and enjoy the benefit of having +1 to his life. 

Note that these bonuses are valid for the round only. If the spell lasts more than one round, it will indicate so. This also applies to the bonus in life: If the mage receives a hit while under the influence of Strength of the Boar, it will survive, but will immediately die if he gets hit again while it is not under the spell’s influence (such as being hit by a unit with higher initiative, or while recuperating mana).

Combat skills are similar, except that they do not require mana. Here’s a sample combat skill: 

1st target the leader [tgld]. This skill allows an expert bowman to target the  

main opposing units before any other. Requires 60 days and $1/day to reach

 the level. Requires 2nd marksmanship [mark] to learn. Gives +1 to missile.
 This is a combat skill. This is a combat action. Initiative: -1. Target:
 opposing leader. Range: battlefield. Equipment: 1 longbow [lbow]. Effect:
 missile attack with modifiers -1 defense.

The skill is self-explaining. Instead of consuming an item, it requires the equipment of an item. Note that, to use, all figures in the unit must be equipped with a longbow, or the skill is unusable. If used, the target will be an opponent’s leader (if there is one). If multiple figures are in the unit, they will all try to target different leaders, since all leaders are in range. 

o Items in combat

Some specific items may be used while in combat. The rules for using these items is similar to the use of skills. Here is a sample battle item:

wand of fire [wfir]. Weight 1. This magical staff allows its wearer to turn it
 on and inflict fire damage to his opponents. Battle action: melee attack with
 modifiers 4 hits, 9 attack, fire damage type. Equipment category: wand, 1
 per figure. Equipment gives: defense +1, initiative +1.

You can use WFIR as a battle action. Note that, if the unit has less wands of fire than it has men, only the men wielding a wand of fire will use it, and the rest of the unit will not do anything, not even a parry. If the men using the wands are killed, their comrades will pick the wands and carry on. 

o Retreat

The battle ends when one of the following three conditions are met at the end of a battle round:

* There are no more units present for one side.
* One of the sides suffered 50% casualties and fails a morale check.
* 5 battle rounds have elapsed without any wound inflicted.
* 100 battle rounds have elapsed.

The morale check occurs for the whole army, not for each individual unit. All individual units have a morale factor equal to 5% times its defense factor, plus 5% times the tactical skill of the best tactician alive. The lowest morale of all units is selected as the base of the morale check. The check fails if the roll is greater than the morale factor. As you can guess, unskilled units panic first and cause the defeat.

The morale factor goes down by 1% each battle turn after which it was checked.

The conditions are considered in order. In the first two cases, one or both sides may be in that situation (notably, it is possible that both sides have reached 50% casualties at the same time and fail their morale checks). If only one side is wiped or has its morale falter, the other side is declared winner of the battle. If not, or if the last condition occurs, the battle is declared a draw.

If there is a winner, the opposing army is in a rout. It is assumed that the units are fleeing in disarray the battlefield. In this case, there is a last round of battle, during which all units on the losing side fight with the following modifiers:

 * All units have a movement of FLEE;
* All units have an action setting PARRY but it may be ignored in 33% cases;
* Stealth factor is negated;

o Aftermath

Any healing is performed now. Units with wounded men see their wounds get well again, or die from the shock.

Any unit that survives is not affected by defeat or win. Any unit that dies produces loot for the winning side. That loot is equal to 50% of the unit’s possessions. Each loot will be given at random to a winner’s side unit. Only units that were already over-encumbered (i.e. unable to walk) or units with enough capacity to walk with the item will be considered for any non-zero weight item.

If the battle was caused by a MARCH order, and the side that was MARCHING is victorious, the unit may proceed, if it was not wiped by the battle. If it was not (battle lost or even draw), the unit will automatically enter a RETREAT order.

o Special battles

o Combat detail

You can use the SETTINGS TERSE order for your faction to specify at which detail you want the combat reports. If TERSE is turned on, you will see a summary of the battle, giving for round which actions were performed by each unit (except MELEE and PARRY actions), and the total casualties during the round. A full report is the default.

If you set TERSE off, you’ll see blow by blow the battle. Each unit movement will be reported, the action, the target of the action and the results.

If any of your units survive the battle and you have a full report, your report will include a description of all the races that got involved in the battle, all skills used, and all items used, on all sides. The battle stats of all the units will also be included on the winner’s side reports, if one side won.



Once you have the appropriate rights on an area, you are allowed to control that area by using GUARD.

* GUARD is intended to prevent non-friendly factions from using up the
 resources of your area, or to prevent hostile factions from using the local
 market, recruiting people or selling things. GUARD is a half-day order (see
 below); the unit or units ordered to guard will act as guardians, but can
 still study, tax, work or anything else, but they will do so at half

Guards must have at least 1st level in combat to use the order. Note that a stack leader issuing the order GUARD will not set the entire stack on guard, only him/herself. 

You can guard an area only if you have the appropriate title: Sheriff, Mayor, Baron, Lord, Marquis or Overlord. If you do not, anyone can tax, harvest or recruit, unless you slay them first. Titles may overlap; the same territory may be under the protection of a Sheriff, and at the same time be right in the range of two Barons. In that case, all factions holding titles can guard. If two factions guard, and one has declared the other hostile, a battle will ensue. 

Player press.

Player press is published each turn in the game newspaper, which serves as a forum for in-game announces and the like (for fast turnover, there is a mailing list).

There are two forms of press, signed press (which is authenticated by the game server) and rumors (which are unsigned). A submission for an authenticated article begins with the line:
 #PRESS faction-id password

The tag represents your faction id, and the password is whatever you have selected. Passwords are mandated by the game server!

After that line, the game will insert all your article until the line:
into the newspaper, and add a signature. There is a separate section for signed and anonymous press, so both cannot be mistaken. Anonymous press is submitted by the line:
 #RUMOR faction-id password
in the same manner as signed press, but is not signed and included in a separate section. 
All players may submit any number of signed or unsigned articles. If a player has submitted a signed article, a reward of $50 will be added to its faction fund. If a player has submitted an anonymous rumor, a reward of $30 will be added to its faction fund. These rewards are not cumulative; you cannot earn more than $50 per turn writing in the newspaper.

At his discretion, the game master may cancel your submission’s reward if you are “obviously” writing something just to get a reward, without regard to the game.
Special command.

Instead of submitting an article or an order form, you may use the  #REPORT faction-id password turn command. Instead of storing the contents of the message, the server will reply to you by sending the report for the appropriate faction and turn. The report is sent back to the submitter of the order, not the normal report e-mail recipient. That recipient will also be notified of the report request. 



The order form begins with the line:
 #GAME faction-id password [turn]

The tag represents your faction id, and the password is whatever you have selected. Passwords are mandated by the game server!

The turn number is optional. If left unspecified, the current turn is assumed, which is always the turn that follows the last report (thus, if you have received the report for turn 5, the current is number 6). If it is specified, the order form will be archived for the appropriate turn. If a turn that was already processed is specified, the order will be rejected with an error message.

If you specify the current turn, or leave the default, your orders will be archived, replacing any orders already submitted. A simple checker will process the order, trying to spot syntax or execution problems, but without simulating all the consequences of your orders. Orders for different turns will simply be archived and acknowledged, but not checked.

If the turn is currently being processed by the game server, any attempt to submit orders for that turn will fail with an error message. Orders for subsequent turns are still allowed, and any order for the next turn will be checked immediately as soon as the turn is finished.

After the #GAME line, the game will recognize only generic orders that affect
your faction as a whole. These orders are:

After these orders, you may use the command
 UNIT id
to select a unit to give orders to. Each unit has a list of sequential orders that they will execute. This list has an arbitrary length of 50 orders, any order added beyond that will not be considered. If a unit cannot execute all orders within the turn, those orders will be kept and executed for the next turn, even if you do not submit a new set of orders. 
When submitting an order for a unit, new orders automatically replace any order left over the previous turn; i.e. the pending orders are cleared. If you want to leave the order for a unit undisturbed from the previous turn, do not include any UNIT ID for that one. 

If the unit is executing one of these orders:
as your very first order of the turn. The RETREAT tells your unit to stop its movement, and return back to its starting point. The coming back will take as long as it took for the unit to get there, and the unit will then start executing the new orders.

 o Generalities

The parser is usually case-insensitive, so arguments may be entered in any mixture of lower and uppercase, except for strings, such as names or passwords.

All orders in the list are executed in the order they appear in the list. If an order cannot be executed because its requirements are not fulfilled, it is skipped, but kept in the list. Thus:
 GIVE unit item 20
will be executed if and only if the unit is present and visible. Until that condition is met, the order will be totally ignored.

Once executed, the order is removed from the list, unless it begins with a ‘@’ character. Thus, a
 @GIVE unit item 1
will be kept, and re-executed as soon as the conditions are fulfilled again. Note that a specific order is executed only once per day. 

o Immediate vs. Day orders

There are two different type of orders. Immediate orders occur in no time at all. You may execute any number of immediate orders within a day (subject to the maximum orders limit).

The other type of order is a full-day order. That order takes one or more days to complete. You may, of course, execute only a single full-day order per game day. Full-day orders are executed after all immediate orders of the day. Full-day orders may be specified with a duration, like:
 10 USE digg
which instructs the unit to use the digging skill for ten days. Each day of execution decrements the counter in front, so, if the month ends up with half of the action complete, you will see in the order template something like:
 5 USE digg
to denote that five days remain. 
Once all days are elapsed, the order completes and is removed from the list.
The default is to execute the order for 1 day. The repetition character ‘@’ and a duration cannot be combined. 

o Movement orders
 There are four movement orders. Movement orders are full-day orders, but are handled a little differently. A movement lasts several days rather than a single day, and, once begun, cannot be stopped. Thus movement orders do not have a duration; if any is specified, it is ignored.

In a stack, only the leader should execute the movement. All the stack will execute the movement, however, as if all units gave the same order. If another unit in a stack gives a movement order, that unit will split off the stack (taking its own substack with it) and moves separately.

The duration for a movement order is shown on the report in the appropriate direction. Usually, this duration is for walking stacks. If a stack has enough capacity for riding instead of walking (i.e. it’s riding capacity is greater or equal to its total weight), it will ride instead of walk. Riding is 50% faster, so travel time is cut by 1/3rd, rounded down. If a stack has enough capacity for flying instead of walking (i.e. it’s flying capacity is greater or equal to its total weight), it will fly instead. Flying takes 4 days, regardless of terrain type.

Note that, if riding or walking takes less time than flying, the unit will still be considered flying, but will move in the indicated time. 
If the stack cannot fly, ride or sail, and its capacity for walking is less than its total weight, it will walk at a slow pace. The duration of the travel is increased by three times the proportion of the overweight, rounded up (so, if a stack is overloaded by 10%, its travel time will be 30% bigger). A stack with 100% overload or more cannot move at all.

Sailing is special. Usually, you cannot walk and sail in the same directions, so there is no ambiguity. If your unit can both sail and fly, the flying will be favored over sailing if the flying is at least as fast as sailing. It is a rare case when a unit can simultaneously sail and fly.

Once movement has begun, the stack will not proceed any other orders, even immediate orders until the movement completes. The stack is also no longer considered being in the location, so no interactions are possible with that stack. There is one exception: other units will contribute to the moving units upkeep, as this is considered an automatic intervention, and not a planned interaction.

The unit will be visible in the originating location for half of the duration of the movement, rounded down. It will then be considered entering its destination location and will become visible at the destination.

Two of the movement orders behave a little differently from above. First, the RETREAT order cancels the current movement: the stack turns around and comes back to its starting position. Coming back takes exactly as long as it took going to the position at which RETREAT was decided. If a unit within the stack orders a RETREAT, it will break off the stack, and go back, while the rest of the stack proceeds. You cannot RETREAT from a RETREAT.

A RETREAT is automatically done by the stack if one of the unit within the stack was considered to be hostile by a unit executing a GUARD order, and the stack was moving using the standard MOVE order. The RETREAT occurs as soon as the stack is entering the destination location.

A battle will occur if a unit in the stack is considered an enemy by a unit executing the GUARD order, or if a unit within the stack was considered to be hostile and the stack was executing the MARCH order. In the first case, the unit on GUARD will be attacking the unit considered enemy, but in the second case, the leader of the stack doing the MARCH will be attacking the unit that was guarding. The former possibility is considered first. If multiple units are on guard, the units will be considered in the order of their presence in the location. If units of different factions in the stack are considered enemies, the least recent addition to the stack will be considered the target (i.e. the unit that appears first in reports).

If a unit is flying, and the unit executing the GUARD is not, the unit will have time to move normally to the center of the location before being intercepted. In that case, the guard will be unable to intercept hostile units, and the movement will not be impeded.

GUARD will not cover directions in which the unit could not move. Thus, if a unit with sailing is ordered on GUARD, it will prevent ships from coming in, but not ground expeditions. Similarly, a unit with walking only will be unable to cover directions from which only flying units could come.

o Stop conditions

Some orders allow a stop condition. The order is considered completed if the stop condition is reached, even if the order repeats or has a duration remaining. A good example is:
 10 STUDY cmbt 1
which orders the unit to study the combat skill for 10 days, or until it reaches the first level, whatever comes first.

 o Conditional orders

Any order may be prefixed by a number of dash ‘-‘ characters. If an order is prefixed by any dash, it will not be considered at all, even if it could be executed.

Once an order, be it immediate or full-day, is removed from the list because it has finished executing, or is invalid, such as a STUDY for a skill you cannot learn, all the orders that follow it will have their initial dash removed, until the first unconditional order is reached. Thus, the following:
 GIVE unit-a item 1
 -5 STUDY skill
 GIVE unit-b item 1
will result in the unit studying the skill if unit-a arrives, or move to the S if the unit-b was present. If the unit-b never arrives, the order list will become:
 GIVE unit-b item 1
and the move will remain pending.

Conditions may be combined:
 HAVE item 2
 -GIVE unit-b item 1

In that example, the unit will wait until the HAVE order is executed (i.e. it has 2 of item). It will then wait until the unit-b is present. It will then move toward the north.

Any order may also be prefixed by a ‘+’ character. If an order is prefixed by a ‘+’, it is considered normally. However, when an order executes, all orders that follow it and have a ‘+’ are removed from the order stack, allowing an alternative conditional. The following sample construction will use the appropriate skill, until the unit has two items, at which time the unit will move N instead.
 HAVE item 2
 +@USE skill

The combination of some immediate orders and the dash construction may yield complex behaviors. 

o Day restriction

Any order, condition, immediate or not, may be prefixed by a day indication, of the form ‘Dnn’ (example: ‘D17’ for ‘Day 17’). If an order is prefixed by a day, it will execute only on the specified day. It is possible to use nonsensical combinations, such as:
 D10 DAY 15
which never executes (as the fact that we’re on day 15 is checked only on day 10 of the month), but serves as an inhibitor for a set of orders. These orders will remain on the order stack from turn to turn as a reminder, until the condition is dropped by editing the order template. 

o Non-standard orders: guarding

The GUARD order is special. It is an immediate order, so it allows the unit to execute a full-day order. However, the full-day order will be executed at half-efficiency, the unit behaving as if it had half the number of figures rounded down; studying while guarding takes double time, production yields only half the normal amount and so on. A unit on GUARD cannot WORK, TEACH or be taught, and a unit with only one figure cannot do anything at all.

 o Order execution

Here’s how the orders are scheduled. For each day, each location in turn is examined, and inside each location, all units are examined in the order they appear in the reports. Note that units inside structures are examined after units outside, and in the order the structures appear in the report. 

The order processor then attempts to execute one immediate order for each unit. If an order is executed, the order is flagged, and will not be examined again for the turn, even if it is a repeat order. After all units have been considered, if any order were executed, the process begins again from zero.

When all immediate orders have been executed, the order processor executes a last pass, and tries to select one full-day order. Full days orders are executed in the same order. Only one full-day order is possible, thus the day is complete.

Finally, all battles that would occur during the day are processed, all markets are processed, recruits arrive, mana is awarded or removed, effects expire, and the day ends.

The entire month proceeds as follows:

* Prior to day 1, all rewards are added to the faction funds. All faction-wide orders are executed at that time.

* Day 1 executes.

* The control points are checked. If necessary, some units are flagged as staying idle.

* Days 2 to 30 execute.

* Work wages are collected.

* Upkeep is computed and claimed. Units may desert.

* Units change their allegiance to their new factions.

* Locations evolve: population changes, climate for next month is determined, productions, markets and recruitment are adjusted.

* Knowledge of all factions is determined; the reports generated, and then sent to each player.
o Order reference

This describes all the orders available. The orders for the faction are described first, followed by the orders for the units. Some orders, like NAME can be both submitted for the faction and a unit, and are described twice.

All unit orders are described with the following characteristics:

- Duration (Immediate, Full-Day, Half-Day). All possible immediate orders are executed during each game day, but each specific order is executed only once.

- Unit restrictions (Leader, Follower, Creature-only, or attribute-specific).  The order may only be issued by the appropriate type of unit.

- Order type (condition, special or one-shot). Conditional orders will ignore  any ‘@’ infinite duration. One-shot orders ignore their duration, and are removed immediately if they execute even once. Specials are conditions or orders that depend on another unit’s actions.

Unit orders are written using the following order:
 - Negative conditions (-)
 - Positive condition (+)
 - Duration (@)
 - Day restriction (Dn)
 - Order (ORDER)
 - Arguments (argument)
yielding the following form of orders:
 -+@Dn ORDER argument

o Faction orders:

All these orders take effect at the beginning of the next turn.

* EMAIL new-email-address
 This order changes your email address for reports and syntax checks.


EMAIL john@yahoo.com

* NAME “faction visual name”
 This order changes the name your faction will have in all reports.


NAME “The Hooterville Posse”

* PASSWORD new-password
 This order changes your faction password. Said password is required in all
 server commands (#GAME, #PRESS, #RUMOR).


PASSWORD hooters123

* RESIGN faction-id
 This orders resigns your faction. All your units will revert to the faction
 designated, which must be one of The Imperials [np1], Citizens [np2], Free
 People [np4] or Outlaws [np5]. Your creature units revert to being members
 of the Creatures faction [np6]. The units are considered given to the
 faction, which will automatically accept them, even if no units of that
 faction are located there, or the faction has declared you neutral or worse.

The faction-id is mandatory.



* SETTING setting-name ON|OFF
 Modified a global setting. Setting is both a global order and a unit-specific
 order. Used before any UNIT order, it modifies immediately faction-wide
 settings. Used after a UNIT order, it will modify either those same settings
 or unit-specific settings according to the rules (including conditionals).

Setting-name must be:

 ADVERTISE: Causes the tokenEntity to show its faction affiliation to any unit
  capable of seeing the tokenEntity.

  ANNOUNCE: Causes the tokenEntity to reveal its presence to any unit capable of
  observing the location, as if its stealth factor was infinitely negative.

  CONSUME: Causes the unit to try to consume for the upkeep available food.

  SILENT: Causes the tokenEntity to be silent about its daily activities. All
  normal activities, such as skill use, give and get items, go unreported,
  making for a shorter turn report.

  SHARE: Causes the tokenEntity to share it’s food and edible items with other
  units at the same location.

  SUPPORT: Causes the tokenEntity to try to withdraw from the faction funds to pay
  for the upkeep first, regardless of the amount of cash in the area.

 TERSE: Select terse battle reports. The default is OFF, meaning you’ll get
 detailed reports.




* RESHOW rule-keyword | rule-tag | skill-tag [skill-level] | [ALL]
Includes in your report the; descriptions for all rules designated by keyword
or if specific rule-tag provided descriptions for the designated rule will be reported.
If this rule is skill-rule descriptions for the designated skill from
the specified skill level up to the maximum skill limit you ever reached.
will be included. RESHOW ALL will report all knowledge about all rules



o Unit orders

There are global unit orders, which manipulate the orders form, and specific
unit orders.

* UNIT unit-id
 Specifies for which unit the following orders are intended. The first UNIT
 command separates faction commands from unit commands. The following UNIT
 separates between different units. If an unit is unspecified, its pending
 orders remain.


UNIT 206

For newly formed units, a special type of identifier is reserved. Identifier
for new units are formed by their faction’s id, the letter ‘n’, the letter ‘U’ and a two
digit number from 00 to 99 (meaning you cannot create more than 100 units in
a single turn. If this causes you problems, something is very wrong).

For a new building or ship these identifiers are formed by their faction’s id, the letter ‘n’,

the letter ‘B’ and a two digit number from 00 to 99

So, if your faction id is ‘f06’ a new unit identifier may look like f06nU01
and new ship f06nB01

New unit identifiers are case sensitive!


UNIT f06nU01

UNIT f06nB01

Units are created by specific creation orders. Once a unit is created, it is allocated a

permanent id. All orders that referred to the unit by its special creation id will immediately refer to the unit by its normal id, including pending orders.

Until formed by one of the creation orders, the unit will not exist, be
visible, or execute any order. Orders submitted by the UNIT new-unit-id
command will remain pending until creation time. If the unit is not created
during the turn, it is wiped out, and all orders referring to that unit will
be removed from all pending lists.

The following are normal orders with examples of how to write them underneath. Any text following a # is comments to help describe the order:

* ACCEPT unit-id
 Immediate, special. This order executes when the designated unit from another faction

attempts to STACK itself under your leadership. The unit is allowed to do so, regardless
 of the stance toward its faction.



ACCEPT f02nU98 #in the case of a new unit from another faction

* AT location-id
 Immediate, condition. This order executes when the unit is at the location
 specified. If a structure id is specified, it executes when the location is
 entered; if a location id is specified and the unit is in a structure at the
 location, the order is not executed.


AT L47

-10 USE LUMB #when the unit arrives at L47, it will try to harvest lumber for 10 days

+STUDY LUMB 2 #while not at L47, and able to study, the unit will try to study to lvl 2

* ATTACK [ unit-id|faction-id|structure-id ]
 Full-day. This order executes and completes when the designated unit, any
 unit identifiable as belonging to the specified faction, or the owner of the
 specified structure is present at the same location, and results in a battle.

The attack does not occur if you are the owner of the target structure.




* BESTOW unit-id
 Immediate, leader only, one-shot. Executes as soon as the designated unit is
 present at the same location, and the unit holds a title. The title deeds are
 transferred to the other unit.



* BUILD skill-tag [construction-tag] [use counter]
 Full-day.  This order executes if the unit has skill required for building
 of designated construction, and the requisite for building that construction.


UNIT U101: BUILD carp f06nB01 #this order will attempt to begin a building using carpentry skill.

UNIT U102: BUILD maso f06nB01 #Other units may participate in building process

##Needs better description here for Build##

* BUY number item-tag [price]
 Immediate, leader-only. This order executes when a unit has at least the
 amount of cash required, and the local market offers at least the specified
 number of items. The unit will attempt to buy the items at the specified price
 or lower. This happens only at the end of market days. The report shows market

The number of items may be 0, in which case as many items as possible will
 be bought, and the order rescheduled if prefixed by a ‘@’.

If the number is non zero, and less than the required number of items are
bought, the order will remain with the number of items adjusted down.


BUY 10 lbow 200 #this order will attempt to purchase 10 longbows for 200 coin each

@BUY 0 iron 25 #this order will attempt to purchase all the available iron for 25 coin each, then be rescheduled for the next market day

* CANCEL title-tag location-id
Immediate, title holder only. Executes as soon as the unit is at the
 required location. Attempts to revoke the title currently held at the
 location, if the unit issuing the CANCEL has the title necessary to revoke
 the title.


CANCEL mayo L47

* CARAVAN location-id location-id ...
 Full-day, leader/creature-only. This order executes if you are in one of the
 specified locations in the list, and the next location in the list is available
 as a direction or is accessible (such as an inner/outer location). The unit
 will execute a MOVE order, subject to all rules and restriction of MOVE, toward
 the next location in list.

When the location moved to is the last in the list, the list of locations is
 reversed after the move is initiated, and the order is considered executed. A
 repetition of the order will then execute the reversed move, not the initial



* CHRISTEN “structure name”
 Immediate, structure owner only, one-shot. Executes as soon as you are the
 owner of a location, i.e. the first unit listed in the structure. The name
 of the structure is changed to the new string. Structure names are used only
 in the report. You may also name any location whose name is equal to the
 location type, such as castles named “castle”, or plains named “plains”.


CHRISTEN “Nirmal’s Roost”

* CLAIM title location [FREE]
 Full day, leader only. Executes as soon as the title is attached to the
 specified location and the unit is at the required location. Attempts to
 claim the specified title for the leader. The order succeeds if the title is
 free, the challenger has the required experience in skill, or succeeds in
 challenging the current title holder under the rules for titles.

The FREE option prevents the order from executing unless the title is not
 already claimed.

CLAIM mayo L67

* COMBAT actions...
 Immediate, one-shot. Executes immediately, and sets the list of combat actions
 during the battle to the list given. You may specify as combat actions:
 - MELEE, to attack in hand-to-hand combat;
 - PARRY, to defend against melee;
 - skill-tag, to use the requisite skill or magic spell in combat;
 - item-tag, to use the requisite item in combat.

Your combat list ends up with an implicit “MELEE PARRY”.


COMBAT RPHS SBOA SHAI #this earth mage will first use his ring of phases, then cast strength of the boar on himself, then stone hail

COMBAT RANGED #the unit will use his equipped ranged weapon (such as a longbow)

* DAY number
 Immediate, condition, one-shot. This order executes and completes on the given
 day of the month.


DAY 15

-NAME “Master of Miltonville”

* DESCRIBE [”unit look”]
 Immediate, one-shot. Executes immediately, and sets your unit textual
 description to the specified string. That description has no effect on the game,
 but is intended for the reports. Specifying no description text erases your
 current description.


DESCRIBE “wearing a dark hood to conceal deformity from previous battles”

Instant.  This order disbands your unit
It disappears with all it’s possessions



* DROP item-tag [number [kept]]
 Immediate. Attempts to drop the required amount of items on the ground.
Item will be added to location inventory.

DROP ston 15 #drops 15 stones

DROP iron 0 10 #drops all iron except for 10

* EJECT unit-id
 Immediate, leader-only. Executes if the specified unit id is stacked at the
 first level of stack under your leadership. That unit is forced to unstack
 if you’re the overall stack leader, or is moved out of your substack and just
 after you if you’re stacked below someone else.



AT L47

-EJECT U999 #this order will execute once the stack reaches L47, ejecting U999 from the stack

* ENTER structure-id
 Immediate, one-shot. Executes if the specified structure is present. Moves
 into the designated structure. This is valid only for structures. Inner
 locations must still be entered using MOVE. The order fails if the owner (i.e.
 the oldest unit present in the location) does not consider the unit friendly.

Note that followers may issue ENTER/LEAVE orders. These orders will cause
 the unit to leave its stack if the order is successful.




* EQUIP item-tag [number]
 Immediate. Executes if the unit has the required skill to equip the item,
 and enough items. The items are equipped, or unequipped if some items were
 already equipped, and a lower number has been specified. If other items in
 the same category are already equipped, less than the requested number of
 items might be equipped.

If unspecified, as many items as possible will be equipped. If 0 is
 specified, all items will be unequipped. If more items are specified than
 allowed, the maximum amount will be equipped.


EQUIP swrd 20

EQUIP hrse 0

Immediate, one-shot.  Executes if the unit is inside a construction.
The unit moves into the containing location.

Note that followers may issue EXIT orders.  These orders will cause
the unit to leave its stack if the order is successful.



* FORGET skill-tag
 Immediate, one-shot. Executes if the unit has any experience in the specified
 skill. Causes the unit to forget the given skill, and all skills that depend
 on it. This order is useful for normal units who wish to learn a new skill,
 but already knows a different skill.


FORGET buil #unit forgets the building skill

* GET unit-id | [location-id] [number] item-tag  [left]
Immediate.  Attempts to get the required amount of items from the designated
unit or location.  If no number is specified, attempts to get as much as
possible.  The order executes if the designated unit is there
(or designated locations is here) and has the items.  The designated unit
must belong to your faction.  The location must be unowned or owner to be
allied. The order immediately fails in the other case.  If a number of items
to be left is specified, the designated unit must have at least the requested
number of items, and the remaining number.  In that case, zero may be
specified as the number, and the unit will get all but the specified amount,
as long as one item can be had.


GET U229 100 iron #gets 100 iron from Unit 229

GET L47 0 coin 50 #gets all but 50 coin from Location 47

* GIVE unit-id item-tag [number [kept]]
 Immediate. Attempts to hand the required amount of items to the designated
 unit. If no number is specified, attempts to give as much as possible. The
 order executes if the designated unit is there and the issuing unit has the
 items. If a number of items to be kept is specified, the unit must have at
 least the number of items handed and the number kept in possession. In that
 case, zero may be specified as the number, and the unit will give all but
 the specified amount, as long as one item can be given.


GIVE U229 ston 100 #gives 100 stones to Unit 229

GIVE U882 swrd 0 5 #gives all but 5 swords to Unit 882

Units tries to guard the territory, preventing illegal activities of other factions.
(TBD: To list what can be done on guarded territory)
Concurrent GUARDing attempts of non-allied factions may cause a battle between them.

@GUARD #unit will guard the location for the entire turn

5 GUARD #unit will guard the location for the first 5 days of the turn

DAY 15

-15 GUARD #unit will guard the location for the last 15 days of the turn

* HAVE item-tag [number]
 Immediate, condition. This order executes if the unit has the specified
 number of items in its possession. If the number is unspecified, it is
 considered equal to 1.


HAVE food 5

-GIVE U222 food 5 #once the unit has at least 5 food, he’ll hand it to Unit 222

* LEADER unit-id
 Immediate, condition. This order executes if the unit-id is one of your
 leaders, either directly, or at a higher level in the stack.


-NAME “Munchkin”

* LEADING unit-id
 Immediate, condition, leader only. This order executes if and only if the
 unit specified is visible in the stack you are leading, at whatever level.



-10 TEACH U222 CMBT #once leading Unit 222, this leader will teach combat to that unit for 10 days

 Immediate, one-shot. Executes if the unit is inside a structure location (not
 an inner location). The unit moves into the containing location.

Note that followers may issue ENTER/LEAVE orders. These orders will cause
 the unit to leave its stack if the order is successful.



* MARCH direction|location-id
 Full-day, leader/creature-only, one-shot. This orders is identical to MOVE,
 except that, instead of retreating if a unit on GUARD attempts to prevent your
 entry, you will enter a battle.




* MERGE  unit-id number
 Immediate, follower/creature-only. This orders executes when a unit has at
 least number figures, and the unit-id, which must belong to your faction, or
 be a stockpile is present at the same location. The skills of the two units
 are mixed and averaged. If this would cause the target unit to know two or
 more basic skills, the figures transferred will forget their basic skills
 before merging, unless the result is only scouting and combat skills.
 Items are not transferred to the target unit, unless the number specified
 is 0. In that case, all figures are transferred to the target-id along with
 their possessions. If the number of figures specified is equal to the number
 of figures in the unit, only the figures are transferred, the resulting unit
 will become a stockpile, and its order list wiped.


MERGE U222 5 #merges 5 followers to Unit 222

MERGE U199 0 #merges all followers and all possessions to Unit 199

* MOVE direction|location-id
 Full-day, leader/creature-only, one-shot. This order executes if you are in
 a location from which the specified direction is available, or from which the
 location specified by its ID is accessible. If the unit was stacked, the unit
 begins by unstacking. The stack then begins to move toward the location. The
 order is finished when the movement is finished, a RETREAT is given to cancel
 the movement, or the access to the location is prevented by a unit on GUARD.

Followers with the SCOUTING skill may move on their own.

If the movement is prefixed by the infinite repeat request symbol (‘@’), it
 is retained after execution. Specific duration is ignored.




@MOVE NE #unit will continue to move northeast until blocked

* NAME “unit name”
 Immediate, one-shot. This order executes immediately, and changes the visual
 name of the unit to be a new string. Names are used only in reports.


NAME “Biscuithead”

* OATH unit-id
 Immediate, one-shot. This order executes immediately when you encounter the
 target unit, and transfers the loyalty of the executing unit to that unit’s
 faction, if different from yours. The unit remains under your control, and
 must still be paid for at end of turn, after which the unit will report to
 the new faction.



Same as Guard order. See description of GUARD for full detail.

 Full-day. Requires at least 1st level in combat skill, and unit must be able to

do damage by wielding a weapon (or with his hands by possessing the Martial

Arts skill). Attempts to pillage a region, causing the unit to harvest the entertainment

money as if it were a 1st level entertainer, tax money as if it were a 1st level tax collector,

and work at the same time. PILLAGE has priority over taxing/entertaining: the

PILLAGing unit harvests all cash prior to any entertainer or taxer.

The unit pillaging must be in an unguarded region, or it will be attacked
 automatically by all units on guard. It must also be large enough to pillage
 at least half the tax amount. See the section above about “significant military forces”

and land ownership to determine how many followers need to be present to pillage.

Additional combat levels beyond the 2nd will increase the PILLAGE efficiency
 by one level equivalence for entertainment and tax for each level in combat.
 PILLAGE is a use of the combat skill but yields NO combat experience.




* PROMOTE unit-id
 Immediate, one-shot. This order executes as soon as you are at the same
 location as the unit specified, and at the same level of stack if in a stack.
 If the unit is located after you in the report order, it is moved in front of
 you and the order completes.



* RECRUIT unit-id number race amount-per-figure
 Immediate, leader only. Attempts to recruit from the local population up to
 the number of figures indicated, spending the designated amount per figure,
 merging these into the specified unit. If a new unit ID was specified, the
 unit will be created stacked beneath the leader. The order executes at the
 end of the day, as soon as it is possible to recruit at least one of the
 designated type of figure.

The number specified may be 0. 0 is treated as “as much as possible”, given
 the available recruits in the month and the cash in possession of the unit.
 Faction funds are not considered.

The amount specified may be 0. 0 is automatically replaced by the price
 indicated in the report.

The leader will not be able to move during the day he recruits. Any newly
 recruited figure will rejoin his unit (which will be created if necessary)
 at the end of the day.


RECRUIT f06nU01 10 man 51 #attempts to recruit 10 man into a newly formed unit (f06nU01 with your faction as f06)

RECRUIT U2095 0 man 50 #attempts to recruit as many men available into an already established follower unit of your faction

RECRUIT f06nU99 1 ldr 0 #attempts to recruit 1 leader for the given recruit price in the report into a newly formed unit

Following the recruitment into a newly formed unit, the newly formed unit may be treated as a new unit with its own orders. Also, other units may refer to the newly formed unit using the designated new ID.


UNIT f06nU01

NAME “New Jims”


UNIT f06nU99

NAME “Air Master”


SEE U290



 Immediate, special. Aborts the current movement, and go back to the previous
 location. RETREAT can be initiated only by the leader of the stack, or the
 moving unit. RETREAT must be the first order of the month. The stack will
 spend as much time it had spent moving going back to its starting point.



* SEE unit-id
 Immediate, condition. This order executes if the unit specified is visible
 at the same location.


SEE U290

-GIVE U290 0 IRON 10 #once the unit sees Unit 290, it will give all iron except 10

* SELL number item-tag [price]
 Immediate, leader-only. This order executes when a unit has at least the
 amount of items required, and the local market requires some of the specified
 items. The unit will attempt to sell the items at the specified price or
 higher. This happens only at the end of market days. The report shows market
 days. If the item is not for purchase, the unit must have the marketing skill
 to attempt the sale.

The number of items may be 0, in which case as many items as possible will
 be sold, and the order rescheduled if prefixed by a ‘@’.

If the number is non zero, and less than the required number of items are
 sold, the order will remain with the number of items adjusted down.

The unit will not be able to move while shopping. If the stack moves, the
 unit will automatically unstack.


SELL 0 FOOD 8 #sells as many food as possible for 8 coin each

@SELL 987 STON 20 #sells up to 987 stones for 20 coin each, and order remains for next turn

* SETTING setting-name ON|OFF
 Immediate, one-shot. Modifies a unit or faction setting. Always executes.

Setting-name must be either one faction setting detailed above or:

ADVERTISE: Causes the unit to show its faction affiliation to any unit
 capable of seeing the unit.

ANNOUNCE: Causes the unit to reveal its presence to any unit capable of
 observing the location, as if its stealth factor was infinitely negative.

SILENT: Causes the unit to be silent about its daily activities. All
 normal activities, such as skill use, give and get items, go unreported,
 making for a shorter turn report.

SUPPORT: Causes the unit to try to withdraw from the faction funds to pay
 for the upkeep first, regardless of the amount of cash in the area.



* SIZE number
 Immediate, condition. This order executes when the unit has at least the
 required number of figures.




+30 STUDY CMBT #unit won’t attempt to pillage until reaching 50 followers in size, but will study combat in the mean time

* SKILL number [ LEVEL | DAYS ]
 Immediate, condition. This order executes when the unit has either the
 specified level, or at least the number of days of experience in the skill.
 If neither LEVEL nor DAYS is specified, LEVEL is assumed.



-CLAIM MAYO #when unit reaches level 2 in combat, will attempt to claim the mayor title


-10 TEACH U222 BLDE #when unit reaches 95 days of blade skill, will attempt to teach UNIT 222 Blades

* SPLIT unit-id number 
 Immediate, follower/creature-only. This orders executes when a unit has a
 least number+1 figures. The unit-id, which must be a new unit id, is created
 just after the splitting unit, at the same location, or in the same stack.
 If the unit had items equipped, figures without equipment will be transferred
 first, then figures with the equipment. Equipped items will remain equipped
 if transferred to the new unit. Unequipped items remain in the unit’s


SPLIT f06nU01 10 #splits 10 followers or creatures into the newly formed unit f06nU01

* STACK [unit-id]
 Immediate, one-shot. This order executes when a unit is at the same location
 as the designed unit. The unit UNSTACKs, if necessary, and stacks under the
 leadership of the designated unit. If the unit under which you are
 attempting to stack doesn’t consider you at least ally, this order will
 fail unless the leader issued the ACCEPT order. You are always visible to
 the unit under which you are stacking.

If no unit id is specified, the unit will UNSTACK, but will not stack under
 anyone specific.


STACK U222 #stacks under unit 222

STACK #unstacks

* STANCE faction-id stance
 Immediate, one-shot. Modifies your diplomatic stance toward a faction. The
 stance must be one of:
 “ALLY”, “FRIENDLY”, “NEUTRAL”, “HOSTILE”, or “ENEMY”. If the faction-id is
 your own faction identifier, this modifies your default stance. If not, it
 will modify your stance toward the specified faction.
 Stances are kept private. You can only guess which stances are declared for
 you by the behavior of units within the game, and your report’s friendly


STANCE f05 ALLY  #if you are not f05, this will make f05 your ally

STANCE f11 HOSTILE  #if you are not f11, this will make f11 hostile

STANCE f06 NEUTRAL  #if you are f06, your default stance to all other factions becomes neutral

 Immediate, special. This order executes when the unit is part of a stack,
 and the stack attempts to move. It causes the unit to leave the stack
 immediately before the move begins.



* STUDY skill-tag [skill-level]
 Full-day. This order executes as soon as the requirement in other skills
 are fulfilled, if any. The order fails if the unit cannot learn the skill
 at all. Creatures cannot use this order. The unit adds one day of study of
 the skill to its experience, spending the indicated amount of coins per
 figure. If a skill level is indicated, and no duration specified for the
 order, the order will reschedule itself automatically.

Bonuses to study may occur, see the section on skills for more.
 If the faction knows the skill, but the unit lacks a required skill level,
 the STUDY will first attempt to study the intermediate skills if this is
 possible. Teaching of intermediate skills will not be allowed; the study
 must be explicit for the teacher to notice.

The order will complete as soon as the unit can no longer study the skill, or
 as soon as the skill level indicated is reached, whichever comes first.


@STUDY CMBT #will study combat for as long as possible

10 STUDY CMBT #will study combat for 10 days

STUDY CMBT 2 #will study combat until level 2

* SYNCHRO unit-id
 Immediate, special condition. This order executes only when the designated
 unit issues a reciprocal SYNCHRO unit-id. Both units will have the condition
 execute at the same instant. Only one SYNCHRO each day is possible.

If both units belong the same faction, SYNCHRO works anywhere within the game
 world. If the units trying to synchronize belong to differing factions,
 they must be able to interact to synchronize.



DAY 10




DAY 10



* SWAP unit-id amount-1 item-tag-1 amount-2 item-tag-2
 Immediate. This order executes when the designated unit is at the same
 location, and issues the SWAP order with the amount/item 1 and 2 reversed.
 The unit gives the amount-1 of the specified item to the designated unit, and
 receives the amount-2 of the specified item in exchange. Factions need not
 to be friendly to SWAP.


UNIT U234 #from faction f06

SWAP U231 1000 coin 15 fish

UNIT 231 #from faction f11

SWAP U234 15 fish 1000 coin

* TACTIC battle rank file move
 Immediate, one-shot. This order executes immediately and sets your tactical
 battle settings.

Battle is one of either: AVOID (do not enter battle unless attacked), DEFEND
 (do not enter battle unless you are on the defending side) or FIGHT.

Rank is one of either: FRONT, MIDDLE or REAR.

File is one of either: LEFT, CENTER or RIGHT.

 FIRE, or SUPPORT (see the description of the battle phase)






* TARGET unit-id|location-id|structure-id|structure-tag
 Immediate, one-shot. This order executes immediately and specifies the target
 for the USE of a skill requiring a specific target (magic skills or building
 skills). If used during the USE of the skill, the amount of work invested
 is lost, and the USE cancelled.


TARGET U222 #targets unit 222

TARGET B126 #targets structure 126

TARGET L46 #targets location L46

TARGET BARR #targets barracks

* TEACH unit-id skill-tag [unit-id...]
 Full-day, leader-only. This order executes as soon as the specified unit is
 present and issues the full-day order STUDY skill-tag. Spends some time
 teaching another unit. Teaching is successful only when the teacher has a
 greater level in the particular skill than the target unit. Teaching enables
 a unit to study a particular skill, get to an higher level and learn faster.

If the target unit could study the skill on its own, up to 50 figures in the
 unit will benefit from the double experience. If the target unit could not
 study the skill or not up to the level it is trying to achieve, the unit must
 not have more than 10 figures in it, or teaching fails.

Note that, due to the way orders are processed, if the target unit requires
 the teacher to be able to study the skill or level, it must execute its order
 after the teacher (i.e., the teacher must be appear before the taught unit in
 the report), or the order will fail.

If only leaders are specified, multiple unit-ids may be given. The
 efficiency of the teaching will be diluted, as described in the section on


10 TEACH U222 CMBT #teaches unit 222 combat for 10 days

30 TEACH U101 MAGE U102 MAGE U110 MEDI #teaches the first two units magecraft, and the last unit meditation for 30 days

 Immediate, one-shot. This order always executes. When a unit is in a stack,
 but not leading the entire stack, the unit departs from the stack. If
 leading a substack, it will become the leader of the new stack. If not in
 any stack, does nothing.



* USE skill-tag [products]
 Full-day. This order executes as soon as the unit has the designated skill
 at 1st level or better, and the requisite for the use of the skill are
 fulfilled, notably for a production skill. The order completes when the
 specified number of products are obtained, for a production skill. For a
 spell casting, products specifies how many castings are done.


@USE HORS 10 #uses the horse breaking skill every day until 10 horses are produced

USE ERST 1 #the mage uses enchant ring of strength skill until 1 ring is produced

 Immediate, condition. This order always executes, and completes when the
 specified number of days have elapsed.



-MOVE N #unit waits 10 days, then moves north

* WITHDRAW amount [item]
 Immediate. This order executes automatically if you are in a city location.
 It withdraws as many coins (or items, if specified) as possible from your faction funds, up to the
 amount indicated. If zero is specified, no coins are withdrawn; to withdraw
 all, specify a very large amount.

Withdrawing is not mandatory; in some cases a unit requires coins for
 an action, so it will withdraw automatically from the faction funds to cover
 any lack of coins. Automatic withdrawal applies to study and upkeep only.

For market purchases or recruiting, the unit must use the WITHDRAW

order to first obtain the coin.


WITHDRAW 3450 #withdraws 3450 coin from faction fund

WITHDRAW 10 FOOD #withdraws 10 food from faction fund

 Full-day. Leader/follower only. Spend the time working for the minimum
 wage. This is the default order.




 Immediate, leader only, one-shot. Executes if the unit holds a title.
 The title becomes unclaimed.

YIELD MAYO #unclaims the mayor title

Starting position.


You have several choices that dictate your starting position, each with a
specific set of advantages and disadvantages. You start the game with one
hero, followed by a unit of 50 unskilled men. Before you start, you have to
choose between the following alternatives:

* Your leader type:
 - General. A general starts with the 1st level in combat and 1st level in
 blades (actually, he spends the 1st game month studying those two
 skills). He gets a sword and plate armor as the starting equipment.
 - Mage. A magician starts with the 1st level in magecraft, and 1st level in
 one of the elementals skills of your choice (Air, Earth, Fire, Void, Water)
 like the general. He gets two random low-level magic items as the starting
 - Adventurer. An adventurous leader starts with the 1st level in scouting,
 and the 1st level in the land lore appropriate to its starting position.
 He gets 30 food rations as the starting equipment.
 - Craftsman. For the undecided. Craftsmen leaders have two basic skills at
 the 1st level. They also get two tools appropriate to their basic skills
 as their starting equipment.

All leaders start with a horse, which is equipped, and a follower unit of 50
unskilled followers, stacked beneath them.

* Your starting position:
 - Imperial start. Your faction enters play in the Imperial City, center of
 wealth, knowledge and commerce. This is a location for the people who want
 to maximize the number of people they will meet and develop a
 trade-oriented faction. Note that, in most of the imperial areas, you will
 not be able to claim titles, nor harvest taxes, and that imperial areas are
 heavily populated, subject to rampant inflation, low wages and the like,
 but cities are close to each other (walking units can move from a city to
 another city in less than a turn), and hostile factions less likely to
 appear. Factions starting in the Imperial City have a bonus of $1000.
 - Imperial borders. Your faction enters play in one of the cities in the
 imperial areas, as an alternative to the heart of the Overlord’s empire.
 It offers most of the opportunities of the imperial city, but the magical
 schools are of lesser reputation. The advantage of being near the Imperial
 borders is that you can quickly cross into the lands of opportunity that
 awaits you. Factions starting in an imperial border city with a bonus of
 - Colonial city. Your faction enters play in one colonial city. All of the
 factions that select colonial city during the same turn will enter the same
 city, until a “fair” number of factions are started there, after which
 colonial starts will switch to another city. Colonial cities resemble
 Imperial border cities.

All starting factions have $5000 in unclaimed funds. The bonus, if any, will
be added to the unclaimed fund.

o NPC units

There are several NPC units you will meet during the course of the game:

* The Emperor. That unit holds the title of Overlord at the beginning of the
 game. It is rumored that the emperor has a very high level in combat, and
 many combat-related skills.

* The Advisor. That unit is always in the Imperial City, and belongs to the
 Mages faction. It is rumored that the advisor is a high level master in all
 elemental skills, and is constantly trying to TEACH the holder of the
 Overlord title in many skills.

* Elemental Masters. These units hold the five elemental titles, and are
 highly skilled in the appropriate elemental skill.

* Guild Masters. These units hold the titles of Head of Guild for the local
 guild, and are skilled in some local skills.

* Guards, Militia. These units are standing guard within cities, and protect
 the city against attack. Guards belong to the Imperials faction, and thus
 may stand guard anywhere. Militia belong to the Citizens or the Free People,
 and may stand guard, despite the fact that the faction does not hold a title
 to the area. These units are skilled in battle, and, since they are standing
 GUARD, will defend any attacked unit.

There are other NPCs. You’ll discover them during the course of the game.


Elementary knowledge.


This describes all the basic skills that can be learned, and all the basic
items that can be found. Most of the elementary knowledge will be included in
your first report.

o Item knowledge

coin [coin]: The monetary unit.

mule [mule]: weight 80, capacity: 150/walking. The pack animal per
 excellence, docile and suited for long caravan duty.

cattle [catt]: weight 300, capacity: 299/walking. The basic food animal.
 Equipment category: food, 1 per figure.

food [food]: weight 1. Emergency rations, to be used to feed your harassed
 troops when they can’t buy their own. Equipment category: food, 1 per

grain [grai]: weight 8. Harvested and grounded grain. Equipment category:
 food, 1 per figure.

tool [tool]: weight 1. Tools speed up the skills of artisans, and reduce
 by 33% the time required to ply their craft. Equipment category: tool, 1
 per figure.

wagon [wago]: weight 250, capacity: 0/walking (800 while equipped). The
 moving contraption of base, with a horse, platform and storage space for
 caravans. Equipment category: mount, 1 per figure. Equipment gives -1 to
 initiative, -1 to melee, +1 to defense.

horse [hrse]: weight 100, capacity: 120/walking, 95/riding (200 while
 equipped). The basic mount, suited for fast riding, and light pack duty.
 Equipment category: mount, 1 per figure. Equipment gives +3 to initiative,
 -1 to melee, -1 to defense.

fish [fish]: weight 2. The basic staple of the sea, rivers and lakes.
 Equipment category: food, 1 per figure.

fishing boat [fshi]: weight 500, capacity: 0/sailing (800 while equipped).
 A small boat, suited for a few valiant sailors. Equipped using 1st sailing
 [sail]. Equipment category: ship, 1 per figure.

sword [swrd]: weight 4. The basic edged weapon for infantry. Equipped
 using 1st blades [blde]. Equipment category: weapon, 1 per figure.
 Equipment gives +3 to melee, +2 to defense, +2 to damage.

battle axe [baxe]: weight 7. The weapons for aggressive fighting. Equipped
 using 1st blades [blde]. Equipment category: weapon, 1 per figure.
 Equipment gives +3 to melee, +1 to defense, +3 to damage.

war hammer [wham]: weight 10. The blunt weapons for straight one-on-one
 massacre. Equipped using 1st melee [mele]. Equipment category: weapon, 1
 per figure. Equipment gives +4 to melee, +4 to damage.

fighting staff [staf]: weight 1. The blunt but effective weapon for the
 skilled fighter. Equipped using 1st martial arts [mart]. Equipment
 category: weapon, 1 per figure. Equipment gives +1 to initiative, +3 to
 melee, +2 to defense, +1 to damage.

longbow [lbow]: weight 5. The basic bow for skilled archers. Equipped
 using 2nd archery [arch]. Equipment category: weapon, 1 per figure.
 Equipment gives +3 to missile. This item is used in combat. Target:
 opposing unit. Range: ranged. Effect: ranged attack with modifiers
 damage 4.

leather jerkin [leat]: weight 5. The basic protection for troops. Equipped
 using novice combat [cmbt]. Equipment category: armor, 1 per figure.
 Equipment gives +1 to defense.

coif [coif]: weight 4. The basic head protection. Equipped using novice
 combat [cmbt]. Equipment category: helmet, 1 per figure. Equipment gives
 -1 to initiative, +2 to defense.

iron [iron]: weight 8. A set of refined iron ingots, ready for plying and
 forging into useful items.

hide shield [hshd]: weight 5. The basic shield. Equipped using novice
 parry [parr]. Equipment category: shield, 1 per figure. Equipment gives -1
 to initiative, +2 to defense.

club [club]: weight 1. The simples weapon, a large carved wood-piece.
 Equipped using 1st combat [cmbt]. Equipment category: weapon, 1 per figure.
 Equipment gives +1 to melee, +1 to damage.

hide [hide]: weight 1. The skinned and prepared pelts of animals, for
 luxury or just clothing.

wood [wood]: weight 20. Felled, cut and without bothersome twigs, a set of
 wood logs.

herbs [herb]: weight 1. Magical herbs, for potions, rituals and other.

stone [ston]: weight 20. A cubit of stones, cut and ready for

mana [mana]: The magical power unit.

o Skill knowledge:

1st observation [obse]: How to stand back, and really look at things.
 Requires 30 days and $2/day to reach the level. Requires 1st relationships
 [rela] to learn. Gives +1 to observation.

1st scouting [scou]: The basic exploration skill, allowing a follower unit
 to move on its own. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This
 is a basic skill.

1st plainswalk [plwk]: The knowledge of the wide plains, their resources,
 and how to survive there. Use of the skill for 10 days produce the
 equivalent of 1 food for upkeep. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the
 level. Requires 1st scouting [scou] to learn. Added capacities:

1st hillswalk [hiwk]: The knowledge of the rolling hills, their resources,
 and how to survive there. Use of the skill for 10 days produce the
 equivalent of 1 food for upkeep. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the
 level. Requires 1st scouting [scou] to learn. Added capacities:

1st forestwalk [fowk]: The knowledge of the deep forest, the fauna, the
 resources and how to survive there. Use of the skill for 10 days produce
 the equivalent of 1 food for upkeep. Requires 30 days and $1/day to reach
 the level. Requires 1st scouting [scou] to learn. Gives +1 to

1st desertwalk [dewk]: The knowledge of the hot desert, and how to survive
 its arid climates. Use of the skill for 15 days produce the equivalent of
 1 food for upkeep. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level.
 Requires 1st scouting [scou] to learn. Added capacities: 20/walking.

1st swampwalk [swwk]: The knowledge of the dank swamps, their peculiar
 flora, and how to survive there. Use of the skill for 15 days produce the
 equivalent of 1 food for upkeep. Requires 30 days and $1/day to reach the
 level. Requires 1st scouting [scou] to learn. Gives +1 to stealth.

1st ambush [ambu]: How to surprise enemies on the battlefield, and put
 them at a disadvantage. Requires 30 days and $1/day to reach the level.
 Requires 1st scouting [scou] to learn.

1st stealth [stea]: How to hide and dissimule oneself from sight. Requires
 30 days and $2/day to reach the level. Requires 1st scouting [scou] to
 learn. This is a combat skill. Gives +1 to stealth.

1st combat [cmbt]: The basic combat training for troops, officers and
 generals. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic
 skill. This is a combat skill. Gives +1 to melee, +1 to defense.

2nd combat [cmbt]: Advanced combat training. Requires 45 days and $1/day to
 reach the level. This is a combat skill. Gives +2 to melee, +2 to

1st blades [blde]: The art of wielding bladed weapons. Requires 15 days
 and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st combat [cmbt] to learn. This
 is a combat skill. Gives +1 to melee, +1 to defense.

1st melee [mele]: The art of using blunted weapons as an effective means
 of attack. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 combat [cmbt] to learn. This is a combat skill. Gives +1 to melee.

1st martial arts [mart]: The martial arts, or how to fight with one’s own
 weapons. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 2nd
 combat [cmbt] to learn. This is a combat skill. Gives +1 to defense.

1st archery [arch]: The art of using bows to attack at safe distances.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st combat [cmbt]
 to learn. This is a combat skill. Gives +1 to missile.

1st parry [parr]: The art of using shields and moving with armors.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st combat [cmbt]
 to learn. This is a combat skill. Gives +1 to defense.

1st maneuvers [mane]: The basic discipline, and the formations on the
 battlefield. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 combat [cmbt] to learn. This is a combat skill.

1st taxing [taxe]: The how to of tax collecting, allowing you to harvest
 taxes. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st combat
 [cmbt] to learn. This is a combat skill. Use produces 1 coin [coin] per
 day. Gives -1 to initiative.

1st tactics [tact]: The art of the tactician. Requires 30 days and $5/day
 to reach the level. Only leaders may study this skill. Requires 1st combat
 [cmbt] to learn. This is a combat skill.

2nd tactics [tact]: Advanced tactical studies. Requires 90 days and $5/day
 to reach the level. Only leaders may study this skill. This is a combat
 skill. Gives +1 to initiative.

3rd tactics [tact]: Long tactical experience. Requires 180 days and $5/day
 to reach the level. Only leaders may study this skill. This is a combat
 skill. Gives +1 to initiative.

1st strategy [stra]: The art of preparing a battle, and not merely conduct
 it. Strategy provides a tactician advantage for the entire duration of the
 battle. Requires 60 days and $10/day to reach the level. Only leaders may
 study this skill. Requires 3rd tactics [tact] to learn. This is a combat

1st nobility [nobl]: The mark of the temporal power, as ordained from the
 highest authorities. Nobility allows you to try to raise to hero status a
 leader unit. Each day spent using the skill results in a small probability
 of success. Requires 5 days and $100/day to reach the level. Only leaders
 may study this skill. This is a specialist skill. Requires 1st strategy
 [stra] to learn. Use targets a unit. Use requires: 1 coin [coin].

1st fanaticism [fana]: Fanatics are willing to fight to the death for a
cause. Fanatic units casualties are not counted for rout, nor are checked
 for morale. Fanatic units always die if their side of the battle loses.
 Requires 45 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 2nd combat [cmbt]
 to learn. This is a combat skill. Gives -1 to initiative.

1st digging [digg]: The art of digging minerals from the earth. Requires
 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic skill. Use produces
 1 stone [ston] in 6 days.

1st iron mining [mini]: The art of extracting and smelting iron ores.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st digging
 [digg] to learn. Use produces 1 iron [iron] in 6 days.

1st forestry [fore]: The art of the trees, the forests, and the woods.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic skill.

1st herbalist [herb]: The knowledge of the herbs, and their magics.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st forestry
 [fore] to learn. Use produces 1 herbs [herb] in 10 days.

1st lumberjack [lumb]: The art of selecting, falling and cutting a tree
 for its durable wood. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level.
 Requires 1st forestry [fore] to learn. Use produces 1 wood [wood] in 5

1st hunting [hunt]: The art of hunting wild animals for their hides.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st forestry
 [fore] to learn. Use produces 1 hide [hide] in 10 days.

1st beast mastery [beas]: The art of training, domesticating and raising
 all kind of animals. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This
 is a basic skill.

1st horse breaking [hors]: The art of taming wild horses to use as mounts.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st beast mastery
 [beas] to learn. Use produces 1 horse [hrse] in 30 days.

1st pack training [pack]: The art of raising pack animals for the long
 caravans of trade merchants. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the
 level. Requires 1st beast mastery [beas] to learn. Use requires: 1 cattle
 [catt], 1 horse [hrse]. Use produces 2 mules [mule] in 30 days.
USE_BONUS fshn 100

1st agriculture [agri]: The skills that make wheat, corn, and beasts.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic skill.

1st farming [farm]: The art of growing good grain, to be ground into flour
 and made into bread. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level.USE_BONUS fshn 100

Requires 1st agriculture [agri] to learn. Use produces 1 grain [grai] in
 30 days.

1st cattle ranching [ranc]: The art of catching the roaming cattle, to
 slaughter for food. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level.
 Requires 1st agriculture [agri] to learn. Use produces 1 cattle [catt] in
 30 days.

1st cooking [cook]: The art of the table. Requires 15 days and $1/day to
 reach the level. This is a basic skill.

1st butchery [butc]: Slaughtering cattle for their food. Requires 15 days
 and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st cooking [cook] to learn. Use
 requires: 1 cattle [catt]. Use produces 4 food [food] in 15 days.

1st salting [salt]: Skinning and salting fish for human consumption.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st cooking
 [cook] to learn. Use requires: 1 fish [fish]. Use produces 1 food [food]
 in 5 days.

1st baker [bake]: Cooking grain flour into sturdy and durable bread.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st cooking
 [cook] to learn. Use requires: 1 grain [grai]. Use produces 2 food [food]
 in 10 days.

1st artisan [arti]: The art of building tools and various sundry items for
 daily use. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic

1st toolcraft [tolc]: The art of making tools for the artisan’s craft.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st artisan
 [arti] to learn. Use requires: 1 iron [iron], 2 wood [wood]. Use produces
 1 tool [tool] in 15 days.

1st wheelcraft [whee]: The art of making heeled contraptions, for
 caravans. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 artisan [arti] to learn. Use requires: 2 iron [iron], 8 wood [wood], 1
 horse [hrse]. Use produces 1 wagon [wago] in 30 days.

1st seamanship [seas]: The skills of the sea. Requires 15 days and $1/day
 to reach the level. This is a basic skill.

1st fishing [fish]: Harvesting fishes from seas, rivers and lakes.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st seamanship
 [seas] to learn. Use produces 1 fish [fish] in 10 days.

1st sailing [sail]: The basic skill for sailing boats. Requires 15 days
 and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st seamanship [seas] to learn.

1st building [buil]: The arts of construction, from ramshackle buildings
 to the finest palaces. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level.
 This is a basic skill.

1st carpentry [carp]: The art of raising logs, build superstructures and
 cover wooden buildings. It takes 10 days at this level to advance the
 construction. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 building [buil] to learn. Use targets a local structure. Use requires: 1
 wood [wood].

1st masonry [maso]: The art of squaring stones, raising walls and firming
 buildings. It takes 10 days at this level to advance the construction.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st building
 [buil] to learn. Use targets a local structure. Use requires: 1 stone

1st shipcraft [ship]: The art of assembling wood to make small boats.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st building
 [buil] to learn. Use requires: 30 wood [wood]. Use produces 1 fishing boat
 [fshi] in 120 days.

1st siegecraft [sieg]: The art of building fortifications, machicoulis and
 other military artifice. Half of a military structure’s stonework must be
 fulfilled with siegecraft. It takes 10 days at this level to advance the
 construction. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 building [buil] to learn. Use targets a local structure. Use requires: 1
 stone [ston].

1st weaponsmith [weap]: The art of making weapons. Requires 15 days and
 $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic skill. Use requires: 1 wood
 [wood]. Us produces 1 club [club] in 10 days.

1st bladesmith [blsm]: The art of making edged weapons. Requires 15 days
 and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st weaponsmith [weap] to learn.
 Use requires: 5 iron [iron]. Use produces 1 sword [swrd] in 30 days.

1st axesmith [axsm]: The art of making battle axes. Requires 15 days and
 $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st weaponsmith [weap] to learn. Use
 requires: 2 wood [wood], 3 iron [iron]. Use produces 1 battle axe [baxe]
 in 30 days.

1st hammersmith [hmsm]: The art of making war hammers. Requires 15 days
 and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st weaponsmith [weap] to learn.
 Use requires: 1 wood [wood], 4 iron [iron]. Use produces 1 war hammer
 [wham] in 30 days.

1st staffsmith [stsm]: The art of making fighting staffs, for the skilled
 fighter. Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st
 weaponsmith [weap] to learn. Use requires: 3 wood [wood]. Use produces 1
 fighting staff [staf] in 20 days.

1st bowyer [bowy]: The art of the bow. Requires 15 days and $1/day to
 reach the level. Requires 1st weaponsmith [weap] to learn. Use requires: 5
 wood [wood]. Use produces 1 longbow [lbow] in 20 days.

1st armory [armo]: The art of making armors and protection for troops.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. This is a basic skill.

1st leathers [leat]: The art of making studded, reinforced leather armors.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st armory [armo]
 to learn. Use requires: 3 hides [hide]. Use produces 1 leather jerkin
 [leat] in 20 days.

1st helmsman [helm]: The art of making coifs and head protections.
 Requires 15 days and $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st armory [armo]
 to learn. Use requires: 1 iron [iron], 1 hide [hide]. Use produces 1 coif
 [coif] in 20 days.

1st shieldsmith [shsm]: The art of making shields. Requires 15 days and
 $1/day to reach the level. Requires 1st armory [armo] to learn. Use
 requires: 2 wood [wood], 1 hide [hide]. Use produces 1 hide shield [hshd]
 in 20 days.

1st magecraft [mage]: The basic magic skill. Knowledge of 1st level allows
 to study one element. Requires 15 days and $3/day to reach the level. Only
 leaders may study this skill. This is a basic skill. This is a magic
 skill. Gives +1 to maximum mana.

1st meditation [medi]: Meditation allows the mage to regain mana faster,
 and supercharge before major magics. Requires 15 days and $3/day to reach
 the level. Only leaders may study this skill. Requires 1st magecraft
 [mage] to learn. This is a magic skill. Use requires: 1 herbs [herb]. Use
 produces 1 mana [mana] per day. Gives +1 to maximum mana.

1st water magics [wate]: The element of Water relates to healing,
 production activities and the seas. Requires 15 days and $3/day to reach
 the level. Only leaders may study this skill. Requires 1st magecraft
 [mage] to learn. Gives +1 to maximum mana.

1st void magics [void]: The element of the Void relates to magic itself,
 gaining arcane knowledge and death. Requires 15 days and $3/day to reach
 the level. Only leaders may study this skill. Requires 1st magecraft
 [mage] to learn. Gives +1 to maximum mana.

1st fire magics [fire]: The element of the Fire relates to battle,
 destructive magics and predisposes to magical alteration. Requires 15 days
 and $3/day to reach the level. Only leaders may study this skill. Requires
 1st magecraft [mage] to learn. Gives +1 to maximum mana.

1st earth magics [eart]: The element of the Earth relates to growth,
 nature and animals. Requires 15 days and $3/day to reach the level. Only
 leaders may study this skill. Requires 1st magecraft [mage] to learn.
 Gives +1 to maximum mana.

1st air magics [airs]: The element of the Air relates to movement, life,
 creatures and knowledge. Requires 15 days and $3/day to reach the level.
 Only leaders may study this skill. Requires 1st magecraft [mage] to learn.
 Gives +1 to maximum mana.