1 The Data

The data that I am going to use is the famous Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) time series. Conveniently, it is a part of the datasets package. You can type ?lynx to see the details of the data.

Canada lynx

Here is some preliminary data exploration:

  lynx
## Time Series:
## Start = 1821 
## End = 1934 
## Frequency = 1 
##   [1]  269  321  585  871 1475 2821 3928 5943 4950 2577  523   98  184  279
##  [15]  409 2285 2685 3409 1824  409  151   45   68  213  546 1033 2129 2536
##  [29]  957  361  377  225  360  731 1638 2725 2871 2119  684  299  236  245
##  [43]  552 1623 3311 6721 4254  687  255  473  358  784 1594 1676 2251 1426
##  [57]  756  299  201  229  469  736 2042 2811 4431 2511  389   73   39   49
##  [71]   59  188  377 1292 4031 3495  587  105  153  387  758 1307 3465 6991
##  [85] 6313 3794 1836  345  382  808 1388 2713 3800 3091 2985 3790  674   81
##  [99]   80  108  229  399 1132 2432 3574 2935 1537  529  485  662 1000 1590
## [113] 2657 3396
  par(mfcol=c(2,1))
  plot(lynx, type="b")
  plot(log10(lynx), type="b")

plot of chunk unnamed-chunk-1

2 Model 1 - sine function

I will models that were proposed by Bulmer (1977) A statistical analysis of the 10-year cycle in Canada. Journal of Animal Ecology, 43: 701-718. The first model is the Equation 1 in Bulmer’s (1977):

\(\log \lambda_t = \beta_0 + \beta_1 \sin( 2 \pi \beta_2 (t - \beta_3) )\)

\(y_t \sim Poisson(\lambda_t)\)

Note that I have modified the model so that the observed number of trapped lynx individuals \(y_i\) is an outcome of a Poisson-distributed random process.

First, we need to prepare the data for JAGS:

  lynx.data <- list(N=length(lynx), 
                    y=as.numeric(lynx))

We will use the R2jags library:

library(R2jags)

The JAGS model definition:

cat("
    model
    {
      # priors
      beta0 ~ dnorm(0,0.001)
      beta1 ~ dnorm(0,0.001)
      beta2 ~ dnorm(0,0.001)
      beta3 ~ dnorm(0,0.001)
   
      # dealing with the first observation
      lambda[1] <- y[1] 
         
      # likelihood
      for(t in 2:N)
      {
        log(lambda[t]) <- beta0 + beta1*sin(2*3.14*beta2*(t-beta3)) 
        y[t] ~ dpois(lambda[t])
      }
    }
    ", file="lynx_model_sinus.bug")

Fitting the model by MCMC:

  params <- c("lambda")
  
  fitted.sinus <- jags(data=lynx.data, 
                       model.file="lynx_model_sinus.bug", 
                       parameters.to.save=params, 
                       n.iter=2000, 
                       n.burnin=1000, 
                       n.chains=3)
## module glm loaded
## Compiling model graph
##    Resolving undeclared variables
##    Allocating nodes
##    Graph Size: 913
## 
## Initializing model

And here we extract the and plot the median of the expected value \(\lambda_t\):

  lambda.sinus <- fitted.sinus$BUGSoutput$median$lambda
  plot(as.numeric(lynx), type="b")
  lines(lambda.sinus, col="blue")